Slide Midterm Flashcards Preview

T4- Systemic Patho > Slide Midterm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Slide Midterm Deck (60):
1

• Hemorrhage beneath the dura
• R. side
• Results from: trauma → rupture of the bridge V
CC:
• rise in intracranial pressure
• gradual & progressive bleeding→ over a period of wks
Result:
• Chronic Hematoma

Subdural hematoma

2

bact for meningitis

step. pneumonia

3

• Often a complication from pulmonary or middle ear infection

meningitis

-Pathogenesis:
• thick, pale inflam exudate over the frontal and parietal lobes

4

Clinical:
• Fever, HA, Neck pn
• vomiting
• (+) Kernings sign
• (+) CSF analysis

Meningitis

5

recent cerebral infarct has ____ necrosis

liquefaction

6

berry aneurysm arises from _____ art
causes: ______

• arises in R. ant. Communicating cerebral artery
•causes subarachnoid hemorrhage

7

base of the brain covered by extensive hemorrhage → located in sub-arachnoid space
cause:
• berry aneurysm

subarachoid hemorrhage

8

MCC of Traumatic intracerebral Hemorrhage

alcoholism (falling)

9

• (B) tumor arising from the arachnoid cells
• Psammoma Bodies

meningioma

MC in the intracranial space (less in the spinal dura)

10

• can have intramedullary hemorrhage

fx of humerus

11

3 phases of healing a broken bone

1. inflam phase
2. reparative phase
3. remodeling phase

12

• erosion of the diploe (spongy bone portion)

bact:_______

chronic osteomyelitis

staph aureus

13

____: reactive woven bone that covers the sequestrium

seen in : ____

involcrum

Chronic Osteomyelitis

14

_____: draining sinus through the skin

seen in ______

cloaca

chronic osteomyelitis

15

• thickened and normal structures have been replaced by broad, pale, irregular bony trabeculae
• high serum alkaline phosphate levels

Paget's Dx of the clavicle

(aka: osteoitis deformans)


• pathological fx, enlargement of the head and incr risk for osteogenic sarcomas

16

MC location of Ivory Osteoma of the skull

paranasal sinuses, orbit and dense bones

17

• pale tumor arising from the cortex (metaphysis) → spreads to the diaphysis→ elevates the periosteum = Codman’s triangle
• sunburst appearance: calcified osteoid extending from soft tis

Osteosarcoma of the femur
aka- osteogenic sarcoma

18

• Metastatic are the MC malignancy of the bone → they are lytic
• Lytic = radiolucencies on x-rays


Osteoblastic metastases (MC) secondary to prostate and breast cancer
• increase serum alkaline phosphate

Metastatic breast carcinoma to the spine and pelvis

19

MC cause:
• atherosclerotic coronary artery dx → coagulative necrosis

acute myocardial infarction

20

MCC of death in MI

arrhythmias

21

Complications:
• arrhythmias = MCC death
• mural thrombus
• rupture
• ventricular aneurysm

Acute myocardial infarction

22

• thinned dilation of the wall
• Thick layer of adherent endocardial thrombus

Acute myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis

23

most common location of the hypertrophic muscle in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

interventricular septum

24

• MC in: interventricular septum
• Pallor of the M
• Inherited autosomal dominant trait

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

25

recurrent acute rheumatic endocarditis can lead to___

mitral incompetence

26

• Mitral valve: has vegetation lying along the valve closure
→ the vegetation is fibrin and platelet deposition

Mitral Incompetence with recurrent acute rheumatic endocarditis

27

• Rounded polypoid and gelatinous tumor
• Arising from the interatrial septum → below the fossa ovalis (mesenchymal origin)

left atrial myxoma

-MC primary cardiac tumor

28

MC primary cardiac tumor

left atrial myxoma

29

MC form of aneurysm
• (m) over age 55

Ruptured Atheromatous Aneurysm in the abdominal Aorta

30

Thrombosis of the femoral artery w/o tx causes_____

dry gangrene

31

(4) complications from varicose veins

Complications:
• edema
• phlebitis
• thrombosis
• stasis dermatitis (cutaneous ulceration)

32

occlusive impaction of any material in the pulmonary arterial system
MC location:
• from thromboembolism in the deep saphenous V of the leg

pulmonary embolism

33

pre-disposing factors:
• post-partum
• post-surgery
• bed rest
• hypercoagulability

pumonary embolism

Fatal: sudden death→ R. heart failure

34

• consolidation of the basal portion of the lower lobe and patchy consolidation of the middle lobe
• grayish- white appearance

bact______

bronchopneumonia

strep. Pneumonia

35

(3) bacterias that case bronchopneumonia

Caused by:
• Strep. Pneumonia
Nosocomial pneumonia:
• E. Coli
• Pseudomonas

36

• total consolidation of the upper lobe→ grayish in the lobe
uncommon:
• bc of antibiotics

cause: _______

Lobar pneumonia

cause: strep. pneumonia

37

Untreated case stages of lobar pneumonia

complications?

1. acute congestion (1day)
2. Red hepatization (2-4 days)
3. Grey hepatization (4-8 days)
4. Resolution (8-10 days)


Complications:
• bacteremia
• Abscess
• Pulmonary fibrosis

38

• large bronchiectatic cavities = coagulative material
• lung parenchyma has dense scarring

MCC: • bronchial carcinoma

Bronchiectasis

Suppurative infection : Staph aureus

39

Military TB complication of primary infections

Myobaterium tuberculosis

40

____ has millet seeds

Military TB

41

MC type of emphysema

Centrilobular emphysema

42

destruction of the respiratory bronchioles with sparing of the distal air spaces

Centrilobular emphysema

MC type of emphysema

43

• Obliterated lower lobe bronchus → hilar lymph nodes

ectopic hormones:
• ACTH
• ADH
• Serotonin

Oat cell carcinoma

44

• Round, pale neoplasm → just beneath the pleural surface
• Well defined margins of the tumor (more superficial)

Lung cancer adenocarcinoma

grows slowly= good prognosis

45

• esophagus ends blindly at the level of the mid-trachea → the lower portion opens into the trachea above the trachea bifurcation

Tracheo-Esophageal fistula w/ esophageal atresia

46

• failure of development or fusion of the septum lying btw trachea and esophagus

Tracheo-Esophageal fistula w/ esophageal atresia

47

bact. for Chronic Peptic Ulcers of the stomach and Duodenum

Heliobacter pylori

duod. is more common than gastric

48

Adenocarcinoma of the stomach--> Gastric carcinoma arises in:

pylorus and pyloric antrum

49

Adenocarcinoma
Of the stomach spreads via:

• via lymphatic to bilateral ovaries
• left supraclavicular node metastasis

50

MC developmental malformation in the alimentary system

Meckel’s Diverticulum of the Ileum

51

Meckel’s Diverticulum of the Ileum is a remnent of :

omphalo-mesenteric duct

52

location of Meckel’s Diverticulum

• antimesenteric border of the ileum → 2 ft from the ileoceccal valve

53

• Walls of the ileum are thick and fibrotic → w/ diffuse luminal inflam
• Can affect any part of the alimentary system→ MC terminal ileum

crohn's dx

54

Characteristic:
* Granulomatous inflammation
• zones of inflammation in all layers
• mucosal ulceration “cobblestone appearance”
• stricture formation

crohn's dx

55

• mucosal lesion
• thickening of the bowel walls → mucosal inflammatory pseudo-polyposis
• haustral pattern effaced
• shortening of the bowel and narrowing of the lumen

ulcerative colitis of the colon

Extends prox. From the rectum → into terminal ileum

56

• high in western countries

adenocarcinoma of the colon rectal region

57

predisposing factors:
• family polyposis
• crohn’s dx
• ulcerative colitis
• diet : low fiber/ high fat

adenocarcinoma of the colon rectal region

58

_____ uses duke’s system for staging

Adenocarcinoma of the colon rectal region

59

• Secondary: bacterial (E. Coli) inflammation

acute appendicitis

60

Complications:
• perforation leading to peritonitis
• subphrenic abscess

appendicitis