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aNeuro Exam 3- Lindsey's > Cortical Lesions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cortical Lesions Deck (63)
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1

What parts of the brain are linked for normal function of human emotions?

  • hippocampus
  • parahippocampal gyrus
  • cingulate gyrus
  • anterior nucleus of the thalamus
  • mammillary bodies
  • fornix

2

The ____ is specialized for mediating the prosody of speech.

right frontal hemisphere

3

This is impaired auditory comprehension due to a lesion in the posterior region of the L superior temporal gyrus.

Wernicke's aphasia

4

This is a critical domain that involves the capacity to plan, carry out, and monitor a sequential goal-directed action.

executive function

5

What is the hippocampus for?

new learning and memories

6

What are the functions of the frontal lobe?

  • voluntary mvmt
  • language fluency (L)
  • motor prosody (R)
  • comportment
  • executive function
  • motivation

7

What lesion can cause disinhibition?

orbitofrontal lesions

8

What are the 3 major nonlinguistic syndromes relating to specific areas of damage in the prefrontal cortex?

  1. disinhibition
  2. apathy
  3. executive dysfunction

9

What can an orbitofrontal lesion cause?

disinhibition

10

What does a lesion in the posterior region of the L superior gyrus cause?

Wernicke's aphasia

11

What is apraxia?

An impairment of learned motor activity

12

What lesion can cause hemineglect?

a parietal lobe lesion

13

What is the major artery supplying the cerebral cortex?

the middle cerebral artery (MCA)

14

A lesion in ______ causes executive dysfunction.

dorsolateral prefrontal lesions

15

This is an impairment of learned motor activity.

apraxia

16

A lesion to what part of the brain can cause visual agnosia?

the occipital lobe

17

Name the lobe:

  • voluntary mvmt
  • language fluency (L)
  • motor prosody (R)
  • comportment
  • executive function
  • motivation

frontal lobe

18

What is disinhibition?

inability to integrate limbic drives into appropriate behavioral responses --> irritability, loss of empathy, impulsivity, hypersexuality, hyperphagia, violence

19

This is the inability to integrate limbic drives into appropriate behavioral responses --> irritability, loss of empathy, impulsivity, hypersexuality, hyperphagia, violence.

disinhibition

20

This is an acquired disorder of writing, often seen with aphasia and other neurobehavioral syndromes.

Agraphia

21

What is perseveration?

the failure to alter one's actions in response to changing environmental stimuli

22

What are the functions of the parietal lobe?

  • tactile sensation
  • visuospatial function (R)
  • attention (R)
  • reading (L)
  • writing (L)
  • calculation (L)

23

What is amnesia?

An acquired disorder of memory, implying an impairment of new learning

24

This is a rapidly evolving disorder of attention.

an acute confusional state

25

What is hemineglect?

inattention to one side of the body or extrapersonal space

26

What causes a lesion of the R hemisphere analog of Wernicke's area?

sensory aprosody

27

Where is Wernicke's area located? Which Broadmann's area is it?

left superior temporal gyrus; Brodmann's area 22

28

What is motor aprosody?

the inability to inflect speech with emotion

29

How many layers are in the neocortex?

6

30

Name the lobe:

  • language comprehension (L)
  • sensory prosody (R)
  • memory
  • emotion

temporal lobe