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Flashcards in Cortical Lesions Deck (63):
1

What parts of the brain are linked for normal function of human emotions?

  • hippocampus
  • parahippocampal gyrus
  • cingulate gyrus
  • anterior nucleus of the thalamus
  • mammillary bodies
  • fornix

2

The ____ is specialized for mediating the prosody of speech.

right frontal hemisphere

3

This is impaired auditory comprehension due to a lesion in the posterior region of the L superior temporal gyrus.

Wernicke's aphasia

4

This is a critical domain that involves the capacity to plan, carry out, and monitor a sequential goal-directed action.

executive function

5

What is the hippocampus for?

new learning and memories

6

What are the functions of the frontal lobe?

  • voluntary mvmt
  • language fluency (L)
  • motor prosody (R)
  • comportment
  • executive function
  • motivation

7

What lesion can cause disinhibition?

orbitofrontal lesions

8

What are the 3 major nonlinguistic syndromes relating to specific areas of damage in the prefrontal cortex?

  1. disinhibition
  2. apathy
  3. executive dysfunction

9

What can an orbitofrontal lesion cause?

disinhibition

10

What does a lesion in the posterior region of the L superior gyrus cause?

Wernicke's aphasia

11

What is apraxia?

An impairment of learned motor activity

12

What lesion can cause hemineglect?

a parietal lobe lesion

13

What is the major artery supplying the cerebral cortex?

the middle cerebral artery (MCA)

14

A lesion in ______ causes executive dysfunction.

dorsolateral prefrontal lesions

15

This is an impairment of learned motor activity.

apraxia

16

A lesion to what part of the brain can cause visual agnosia?

the occipital lobe

17

Name the lobe:

  • voluntary mvmt
  • language fluency (L)
  • motor prosody (R)
  • comportment
  • executive function
  • motivation

frontal lobe

18

What is disinhibition?

inability to integrate limbic drives into appropriate behavioral responses --> irritability, loss of empathy, impulsivity, hypersexuality, hyperphagia, violence

19

This is the inability to integrate limbic drives into appropriate behavioral responses --> irritability, loss of empathy, impulsivity, hypersexuality, hyperphagia, violence.

disinhibition

20

This is an acquired disorder of writing, often seen with aphasia and other neurobehavioral syndromes.

Agraphia

21

What is perseveration?

the failure to alter one's actions in response to changing environmental stimuli

22

What are the functions of the parietal lobe?

  • tactile sensation
  • visuospatial function (R)
  • attention (R)
  • reading (L)
  • writing (L)
  • calculation (L)

23

What is amnesia?

An acquired disorder of memory, implying an impairment of new learning

24

This is a rapidly evolving disorder of attention.

an acute confusional state

25

What is hemineglect?

inattention to one side of the body or extrapersonal space

26

What causes a lesion of the R hemisphere analog of Wernicke's area?

sensory aprosody

27

Where is Wernicke's area located? Which Broadmann's area is it?

left superior temporal gyrus; Brodmann's area 22

28

What is motor aprosody?

the inability to inflect speech with emotion

29

How many layers are in the neocortex?

6

30

Name the lobe:

  • language comprehension (L)
  • sensory prosody (R)
  • memory
  • emotion

temporal lobe

31

What is executive function?

a critical domain that involves the capacity to plan, carry out, and monitor a sequential goal-directed action

32

What is visual agnosia?

ability to see an image but can't recognize it

33

This is located in in the L frontal lobe and is Brodmann's area 45.

Broca's area

34

This is a failure of recognition through one sensory modality; visual, auditory, and tactile agnosias have been described.

Agnosia

35

This is the failure to alter one's actions in response to changing environmental stimuli.

perseveration

36

What happens with bilateral hippocampal resection?

permanent amnesia

37

How many layers are in the allocortex? What does it consist of? What are these brain areas important for?

  • 3
  • the hippocampus and temporal lobe
  • memory

38

This is inattention to one side of the body or extrapersonal space.

hemineglect

39

What is Agnosia?

A failure of recognition through one sensory modality; visual, auditory, and tactile agnosias have been described.

40

How thick is the cerebral cortex? How many layers does it consist of?

3mm; 6 layers

41

What is mediated by the limbic system?

the 4 Fs:

  • fighting
  • fleeing
  • feeding
  • F-ing

42

This is a loss of motivation and erosion of initiative .

apathy

43

Apathy is caused by _____ lesions.

medial frontal

44

What do dorsolateral prefrontal lesions sometimes cause?

executive dysfunction

45

Name the lobe:

  • vision
  • vision perception
  • visual recognition

occipital lobe

46

This is the inability to inflect speech with emotion.

motor aprosody

47

What does a medial frontal lesion cause?

apathy

48

A lesion in the left occipital lobe and splenium of the corpus callosum can cause?

pure alexia

49

This is the impaired ability to identify objects by name; a synonym is dysnomia.

anomia

50

What is Agraphia?

An acquired disorder of writing, often seen with aphasia and other neurobehavioral syndromes.

51

This is a pt can write but can not read due to a lesion in the left occipital lobe and splenium of the corpus callosum.

pure alexia

52

What is anomia?

Impaired ability to identify objects by name; a synonym is dysnomia

53

This is the inability to maintain a coherent line of thought despite adequate arousal and language function.

confusion

54

What is Wernicke's aphasia?

impaired auditory comprehension due to a lesion in the posterior region of the L superior temporal gyrus

55

What are the functions of the temporal lobe?

  • language comprehension (L)
  • sensory prosody (R)
  • memory
  • emotion

56

What is apathy?

loss of motivation and erosion of initiative

57

What are the functions of the occipital lobe?

  • vision
  • vision perception
  • visual recognition

58

What is an acute confusional state?

A rapidly evolving disorder of attention

59

Where is Broca's area? Which Brodmann's area is it?

  • in the L frontal lobe
  • Brodmann's area 45

60

What is the ability to see an image but can't recognize it called?

visual agnosia

61

What is pure alexia?

pt can write but can not read due to a lesion in the left occipital lobe and splenium of the corpus callosum

62

Name the lobe:

  • tactile sensation
  • visuospatial function (R)
  • attention (R)
  • reading (L)
  • writing (L)
  • calculation (L)

the parietal lobe

63

This is an acquired disorder of memory, implying an impairment of new learning.

amnesia