Ocular Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

aNeuro Exam 3- Lindsey's > Ocular Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ocular Pharmacology Deck (27):
1

How does pilocarpine treat closed angle glaucoma? What drugs are administered with it?

  • rapidly decreases IOP by lowering resistance to outflow of aqueous humor
  • given with apraclonidine and timolol

2

What is the tx for HSV keratitis?

  • acyclovir (oral)
  • trifluridine (topical)

3

How does mannitol/glycerol treat closed angle glaucoma?

osmotic diuresis

4

This drug rapidly decreases IOP by lowering resistance to outflow of aqueous humor and is used to treat CLOSED ANGLE glaucoma.

pilocarpine

5

What is the main risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma?

increased intraocular pressure (IOP)

6

What is Timolol/Timoptic? What is it used to treat? What are its SEs?

  • a beta-blocker
  • used to treat OPEN ANGLE glaucoma
  • SEs = exacerbation of heart problems, asthma, airway troubles

7

____ is associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP > 22mmHg).

Glaucoma

8

Name an alpha-2 agonist used to treat open angle glaucoma. What are its SEs?

  • Brimonidine/Alphagan
  • SEs = red eyes, CNS depression, apnea in children

9

These drugs treat glaucoma by constricting the pupil, relaxing the lens, and improving drainage.

muscarinic agonists

10

These drugs treat glaucoma by decreasing the production of aqueous humor.

beta-blockers

11

What is the tx for viral conjunctivitis?

  • OTC antihistamines or decongestants
  • lubricant ointments

12

How do muscarinic agonists treat glaucoma?

  • constrict the pupil
  • relax the lens
  • improve drainage

13

What abx can be used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis? Which abx should be avoided?

  • tx = erythromycin, polymixin-trimethoprim, azithromycin, fluoroquinolones
  • AVOID AMINOGLYCOSIDES

14

What is the tx for open angle glaucoma?

  • surgery
  • prostaglandin analog (PA- Latanoprost/Xalantan)
  • beta-blocker (Timolol/Timoptic)
  • carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (Dorzolamide/Trusopt)
  • alpha-2 agonist (Brimonidine/Alphagan)
  • combo therapy

15

What is normal intraocular pressure (IOP)?

10-15mmHg above atmospheric (keeps the eye slightly distended)

16

What is the tx for closed angle glaucoma?

  • pilocarpine
  • acetazolamide
  • mannitol/glycerol

17

This drug blocks the formation of aqueous humor.

acetazolamide

18

Name a beta-blocker used to treat open angle glaucoma. What are its SEs?

  • Timolol/Timoptic
  • SEs = exacerbation of heart problems, asthma, airway troubles

19

These drugs cause osmotic diuresis for the tx of CLOSED ANGLE glaucoma.

mannitol/glycerol

20

Name a prostaglandin analog (PG). What is it used to treat? What are its SEs?

  • Latanoprost/Xalantan
  • OPEN ANGLE glaucoma
  • SEs= brown discoloration of iris, eyelash length. and dark., irritation

21

What is Latanoprost/Xalantan? What is it used to treat? What are its SEs?

  • a prostaglandin analog (PG)
  • used to treat OPEN ANGLE glaucoma
  • SE = brown discoloration of iris, eyelash length. and dark,. irritation

22

What is Dorzolamide/Trusopt? What is it used to treat? What are its SEs?

  • a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
  • used to treat OPEN ANGLE glaucoma
  • SEs = bitter taste, fatigue

23

What is Brimonidine/Alphagan? What is it used to treat? What are its SEs?

  • an alpha-2 agonist
  • used to treat OPEN ANGLE glaucoma
  • SEs = eyes, CNS depression, apnea in children

24

Name a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. What is it used to treat? What are its SEs?

  • Dorzolamide/Trusopt
  • OPEN ANGLE glaucoma
  • SEs = bitter taste, fatigue

25

How do beta-blockers treat glaucoma?

decrease production of aqueous humor

26

How does acetazolamide treat closed angle glaucoma?

it blocks the formation of aqueous humor

27

What is the difference btw treating mild and severe bacterial keratitis?

  • mild = empiric abx
  • severe = fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin, moxifloxacin), Cipro, tobramycin, or vancomycin