Flashcards in Criminal Inv-Chapter 10, Robbery Deck (14):
essentail elements of robbery are
taking personal property from the person
taking against the possessors will
taking by force or fear
presence of a possessor means
within sight or hearing of the victim
against the possessors will
is implied in the force and fear element of robbery, which must be adequate to frighten victim and make victim part with his property
FBI uniform crime reports on robbery 2008
441,855 robberies in US
145.3 per one hundred thousand inhabitants
losses $581 million
average loss $1315
43.5% firearms used
40.2% strongarm tactics
27% cleared by arrest or exept
robbery divided into degrees
first degree-armed with dangerous or deadly weapon likely to cause death or serious bj
2nd degree- physical force or threats but w/o weapon, including purse snatching
1969 California top court repudiated the doctrine
any movement of the robbery victim amounted to kidnapping
People v Timmons
court held that true test was whether the movement of victim substantially increased the risk of harm beyond that inherent in robberies
victim consents because of induced by persuasive threats that are related to future harm or disgrace rather than here and now harm.
extortion scheme. woman places a selected victim in a comprising position (nude, in bed, motel) then victimizes him by demanding money. Male accomplice breaks in pretending to be outraged husban threatening violence, scandel. Harassment of victim is key to success of this scheme.
1890 a scam described by New York City Police Dept as badger game. who is det
Chief of Detectives James Byrnes
Robbery- three styles
spontaneous play group
members drawy from NY notorious "roberts lounge gange. customers frequenting a small bar near cargo areaof John F Kennedy Intern Airport. they would assemble daily at this bar. 7 members carries out robbery at Lufthansa air cargo terminal at JFK. Loot totaled $8 million in cash, jewels and gold.
Link-ups or connect-ups
indicate the operations of a group.