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Flashcards in cultural bias Deck (14)
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What is cultural bias?

Ignoring cultural differences
Interpret phenomena through the lens of one culture


What is an example of cultural bias?

Asch and Milgram
Very different results in other parts of the world (Kilham and Mann)


What is ethnocentrism?

Belief in superiority of one’s own culture
View that behaviours which do not conform to the Weatern model are somehow deficient and underdeveloped


What is an example of ethnocentrism?

Strange Situation only reflects American values
Key variable of attachment is separation anxiety
German mothers seen as cold for encouraging independence


What is imposed etic?

Strange Situation is an example
Imposing cultural understanding on rest of world


Who drew a distinction between etic and emic?



What is an etic approach?

Looks at behaviour from outside a culture
Describes that behaviour as universal


What is an emic approach?

Within a culture
Identifies culture specific behaviour


What is cultural relativism?

Norms and values can only be meaningful within a cultural context
Recognising this is a way to avoid cultural bias


Evaluation - individualism and collectivism

In the global age, a lazy and simplistic distinction between cultures doesn’t work
Takano and Osaka - 14 out of 15 studies comparing USA and Japan found no distinction
Cultural bias less of an issue now


Evaluation - cultural relativism vs universality

Not all psychology is culturally relative
Ekman - basic facial expressions are the same everywhere
Interactional synchrony


Evaluation - unfamiliarity with research tradition

Assume general knowledge of scientific process
Faith in science may not extend to all cultures
Demand characteristics exaggerated in Western culture


Evaluation - operationalisation of variables

Behavioural expression of emotions eg aggression
Different behaviours everywhere
CHINA - invasion of personal space are normal
WEST - confrontational


Evaluation - challenging implicit assumptions

Cross cultural research challenges our ways of thinking
Concepts we take for granted not shared by everyone