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Flashcards in Cultural Theories Deck (5)
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1

Halls

Low context- direct com, message conveys own meaning. HC- meaning in com conveyed indirectly through surrounding message.

Centre of power:Need for clearly deliniated space between self and others. Centre of community: Communal, comfortable sharing personal space with others

Monochromic- sequential attention to individual goals, separation of work and personal life. Polychronic- simultaneous attention to multiple goals, integration of work and personal life. Relative concept of time.

2

Schwartz

Conservatism: individuals embedded in a collectivity, find meaning through participation and group identification. Autonomy: individuals autonomous from groups, finding meaning in own uniqueness.

Hierarchy: cultures organised hierarchically, individuals comply w roles and sanctioned if not. Egalitarianism: individuals seen as moral equals who share basic interests as humans.

Mastery: individuals value getting ahead through self assertion and seek to change social world to advance personal interests. Harmony: individuals accept world as it is and try to preserve it rather than exploit it.

3

Trompenaars

Universalism- reliance on rules and policies that are applied equally to everyone. Particularism- rules tempered by nature of situation and people involved.

Individualism/collectivism

Neutral- refrain from showing emotion. Affective- emotional expressions accepted/encouraged.

Achievement- respect for earned accomplishments. Ascription- respect for ascribed/inherited status.

Past/present oriented, future oriented.

Inner directed- focus on controlling environment. Outer directed- focus on living in harmony with nature.

4

Hofstede

PDI (low- leaders don’t need much lower, High- people in power should have lots of power)

Uncertainty Avoidance

Individualism/collectivism

Masculinity- value material possessions, money and personal goals. Femininity- value strong social relevance, life quality, others welfare.

LTO- value hard work. STO- value traction and social obligation.

Indulgence- societal emphasis on enjoyment and need gratification. Restraint- strict societal control to compress or regulate gratification.

5

Globe

PDI
UAI
Humane orientation
Collectivism
Assertiveness (High- value dominance, tough behaviour, low- prefer modesty, sympathy to weak)
Gender egalitarianism
Future orientation
Performance orientation