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Challenges to cultural understanding


Ethnocentrism- tendency to negatively evaluate others cultures in terms of their own

Parochialism- viewing the world only through your perspective. Doesn’t recognise different ways of living.


Global manager types

Expatriates: long-term face-to-face management, assigned to reside in foreign country to oversee company operations, high cultural embeddedness – low technological dependence. Require deep knowledge of cultures. Regional myopia

Frequent flyes: short-term face-to-face, manages flown into plan and control operations. Moderate to low cultural embeddedness and tech dependence, require moderate understanding of cultures. Global myopia

Virtual managers: virtual management in specialised areas, low cultural embededdness, high tech dependence. Require modest understanding of culture. Technological myopia.


Global management model

1. Targeted goals and objectives
2. Contextual demands and constraints
3. Managerial options and actions
4. Global management skills