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1

Challenges to cultural understanding

Stereotyping

Ethnocentrism- tendency to negatively evaluate others cultures in terms of their own

Parochialism- viewing the world only through your perspective. Doesn’t recognise different ways of living.

2

Global manager types

Expatriates: long-term face-to-face management, assigned to reside in foreign country to oversee company operations, high cultural embeddedness – low technological dependence. Require deep knowledge of cultures. Regional myopia

Frequent flyes: short-term face-to-face, manages flown into plan and control operations. Moderate to low cultural embeddedness and tech dependence, require moderate understanding of cultures. Global myopia

Virtual managers: virtual management in specialised areas, low cultural embededdness, high tech dependence. Require modest understanding of culture. Technological myopia.

3

Global management model

1. Targeted goals and objectives
2. Contextual demands and constraints
3. Managerial options and actions
4. Global management skills