Cutaneous Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cutaneous Immunology Deck (39):
1

What are the inflammatory mediators of innate immunity response?

mast cells and eosinophils

2

What are the phagocytic cells of the innate immunity response?

neutrophils and macrophages

3

how long does initial stimulation of the adaptive immune response take?

7-14 days

4

what cytokines do TH1 cells release?

IFN-y and TNF

5

What do IFN-y and TNF do?

activate macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and cytotoxic T cells

6

What do TH1 cells direct their attack against?

viruses, tumors, and intracellular pathogens

7

Which cells are responsible for delayed (Type IV) hypersensitivity?

Th1 cells

8

What do Th2 cells release?

IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10

9

What do IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 do?

activate eospinophils and plasma cells and lead to IgE production

10

What do Th2 cells attack against?

parasites and extracellular microbes

11

What cells stimulate humoral immunity?

Th2

12

Which cells are implicated in the development of autoimmune diseases?

Th17

13

Th1 cells are linked to what 3 pathologies?

Allergic contact dermatitis
Psoriasis
Drug eruptions

14

What 3 pathologies are Th2 cells linked to?

Atopic Dermatitis
Uticaria
Asthma

15

What are 5 common allergens?

Poison Ivy/oak
nickel
fragrances
preservatives
topical antibiotics

16

What is patch testing used for?

To detect common allergens that could be causing allergic contact dermatitis

17

What are haptens?

molecules that are too small to be recognized independently but are capable of stimulating the immune system after binding native proteins

18

Where does atopic dermatitis affect infants?

face, scalp and extensor aspects of the extremities

19

Where does atopic dermatitis affect older children and adults?

flexural regions and face

20

colonization of what bacteria can contribute to atopic dermatitis?

staph aureus

21

what is the genetic defect associated with atopic dermatitis?

filaggrin

22

What is a good treatment for prevention of atopic dermatitis flares?

bleach baths--> kills colonization of staph areus

23

What viral infection are those with atopic dermatitis at risk of contraction?

eczema herpeticum (due to impaired cell-mediated immunity

24

What syndrome is associated with destructive arthritis?

psoriasis

25

What is keobnerization?

trauma to the skin that leads to more inflammation (scratching)

26

What is guttate psoriasis?

presents with small round papules and plaques; often precipitated by strep infection

27

What is the defining histological characteristic of psoriasis?

presence of neutrophils

28

What disease presents with angioedema?

Urticaria

29

What is angioedema?

affects the deep dermis and causes painful swelling often of the lips and face

30

What is the most defining feature of urticaria?

evanesence--> symptoms resolve after 24 hours

31

Urticaria is a ____ type hypersensitivity

type I

32

What is dermatographism?

when light scratching results in itchy linear wheals that can be "read" minutes later

33

What causes Dermatographism?

very excitable mast cells

34

What medications most commonly cause drug eruptions?

antibiotics, anticonvulsants and NSAIDS

35

what is the systemic parallel of allergic contact dermatitis?

Exanthematous drug eruption

36

What is DRESS?

DRug Eruption with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms; characterized by exanthematous eruption with fever, lymphadenopathy, and facial edema

37

When is the onset of DRESS

15-40 days after initial stimuli

38

When does ACE-inhibitor angioedema occur?

days to YEARS after exposure

39

Describe some common features of Steven-Johnson Syndrome/ Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

Immune system activates a cascade of apoptosis --> widespread epidermal necrosis
characterized by erythematous and dusky macules
fever and systemic syndromes
PAINFUL