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Flashcards in Dermis and Subcutaneous Tissue Deck (32):
1

What cell types do you find in the dermal layer?

dendrocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and mast cells

2

What is the primary type of collagen in the dermis?

Type 1

3

What are the features of Type I Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?

hypermobility of joints
excessive stretch to skin
fragile skin
atrophic ('fish mouth') scars

4

Ehlers-Danlos is caused by mutations in what structural component of the dermis?

collagen

5

What are features of Type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?

involve blood vessels and leads to bruising, GI, and arterial rupture

6

What are common features of - Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)?

Autosomal recessive
Affects eye, skin, and CV system
Yellow papules of the lateral neck and axillae
Ocular involvement that affects visual acuity and may lead to blindness
CV complications like hypertension, angina and MI
onset in 1st or 2nd decade of life

7

Marfan syndrome is caused by a genetic disorder of what?

fibrillin

8

What are the common features of Livedo reticularis?

reticulated macular erythema of the skin
most common in the lower extremities
Hypoperfusion of the skin --> mostly due to cold

9

What are some of the common features of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis

Inflammation of blood vessels
Caused by medications, infection, and autoimmune diseases
present with palpable purpura
legs and ankles are most often affected

10

What is palpable purpura?

reddish-purple, domed papules that do not blanch with presure

11

What are the 3 phases of normal wound healing?

Inflammatory, proliferative and maturation

12

During what phase of the wound healing response is there an influx of neutrophils and macrophages?

Inflammatory

13

Excess collagen deposits result in ______.

a keloid

14

What is a pyogenic granuloma?

a rapidly growing, friable vascular lesion that bleeds easily and often arises in sites of trauma.

15

What is the treatment of a pyogenic granuloma?

Cauterization or surgical removal

16

What is sclerosis?

hypocellular thickening of collagen

17

What are common features of morphea (localized) scleroderma?

expanding erythematous plaque that progressively become indurated
central point becomes hypopigmented and surrounded by a lilac-colored ring
trunk is commonly involved

18

What are common features of systemic sclerosis?

Raynaud's pehnomenon
may be associated with CREST

19

What is Raynaud's phenomenon?

episodic color changes in the fingers and toes in response to cold

20

What is CREST syndrome?

Calcinosis cutis (Ca deposits in the skin)
Raynaud's phenomenon
Esophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly (induration of the digits)
Telangiectasis

21

What are common features of diffuse scleroderma?

Involves the trunk and proximal extremities
Cutaneous fibrosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, pulmonary fibrosis, renal insufficiency and cardiac disease may occur

22

What are some side effects of photoaging?

Atrophy, lentigines (large freckles), rhytides (wrinkles), dilated pores, and a yellow quality to the skin

23

What causes the yellow color seen in photoaged skin?

fractured/degenerated elastic fibers

24

What is Poikiloderma of Civatte?

telangiectasias, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation , and atrophy

25

What is actinic purpura?

focal bleeding caused by UV induced thinning of collagen

26

What areas do not have subcutaneous tissue?

eyelids and male genitals

27

What is Panniculitis?

an inflammatory disorder of the subcutaneous fat (lobules or fibrous septae)

28

What are some common features of Panniculitis?

tender (i.e painful), erythematous, non-ulcerated nodules with ill-defined borders
occurs most often on the lower extremities

29

What is Erythema Nodosum (EN)?

most common type of panniculitis
caused by medications (CONTRACEPTIVES), infections, sarcoidosis, IBD, and idopathic causes

30

Wounds are at 20% final strength ______ after injury

3 weeks

31

The final strength of a scar is _______ that of intact skin

70-80%

32

What is a hypertrophic scar?

When the scar is thick and raised and composed mostly of collagen, but within the borders of the injury (normal)