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Flashcards in Epidermis Deck (34):
1

What accessory cells are found in the epidermis?

Langerhan cells, melanocytes, and sweat ducts

2

Where does desmoglein 1 localize?

entire dermis, but mainly the upper epidermis

3

Where does desmoglein 3 localize?

Basal layer

4

Where are the keratohyaline and the lamellar granules located?

Granule layer of the epidermis

5

Where is profilaggrin located?

the keratohyaline granules

6

What is the function of filaggrin

promotes aggregation and stabilization of intermediate filaments

7

What is the function of Lamellar granules (Odland bodies)?

they release lipids and sterols into the intercellular space at the upper levels of the granular layer

8

During embryogenesis, keratinocytes migrate from _____?

dorsal neural crest cells

9

What are natural moisturizing factors?

free AAs, lactic acid, urea, and salts in the corneocytes

10

Disruption of desquamation may result in _____

xerosis

11

What is the transit time from the basal layer to the granular layer?

12-14 days

12

What is the desquamation rate for cells in the cornified layer?

12-14 days

13

What is Acanthosis?

increased cell proliferation in the stratum spinosum

14

What is hyperkeratosis?

thickening of the stratum corneum due to increased production of corneocytes or reduced desquamation of corneocytes

15

What is Lichenification?

Thickening of the stratum spinosum and stratum corneum in response to repeated scratching or rubbing--> leads to leathery and hyperpigmented skin

16

Psoriasis is an example of what kind of hyperplasia?

Acanthosis

17

Keratosis pilaris is an example of what kind of hyperplasia?

Hyperkeratosis

18

Lichen simplex chronicus is an example of what kind of hyperplasia?

Lichenificiation

19

What are examples of diseases of cornification?

Ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) and Palmaoplantar Keratoderma (PPK)

20

What is keratosis pilaris?

a follicular retention hyperkeratosis overlying hair folicles of the extensor upper and lower extremities and buttocks

21

What other pathologies is Ichthyosis vulgaris associated with?

atopy and keratosis pilaris

22

Describe common features of Ichthyosis vulgaris.

retention hyperkeratosis
autosomal dominant
dry skin with white adherent scaling
improves with age
exacerbated by cold and decreased humidity

23

Describe common features of Palmoplantar Keratoderma

hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles
autosomal dominant and recessive
keratin mutation resulting in abnormal pairing of type I and II keratins

24

Describe the 3 variants of Palmoplantar Keratoderma

Diffuse: thick, yellow plaques of the entire palm and/or sole (maybe hyperhidrosis)
Focal: hyperkeratosis over localized pressure points
Punctate: hyperkeratotic papules and nodules (often misdiagnosed as warts)

25

What is the treatment for Palmplantar keratoderma?

paring of the hyperkeratotic areas and use of topical moisturizers and humectants

26

Describe some common features of atopic dermatitis

genetic
filaggrin defects
involves extensor fossa areas

27

How do you treat atopic dermatitis?

steroids

28

How do you treat psoriasis?

steroids

29

Describe common features of Psoriasis.

red plaques with thick adherent scale and nail changes
inflammation stimulates a shortened cell turnover time (4 days)
Th17 response causes inflammation and rapid cell proliferation

30

What causes Staphylococcal Scalded Skin syndrome?

exotoxin ET-A and ET-B that target desmoglein 1

31

what are treatments of Staphylococcal Scalded Skin syndrome?

Hospital admission of IV antibiotics, skin care, and close monitoring

32

Describe common features of Staphylococcal Scalded Skin syndrome.

malaise, irritability, fever, and skin pain
cutaneous erythema at the head that generalizes
flaccid bullae

33

What are common humectant agents?

ammonium lactate and urea creams

34

Where do you want to take a culture from for SSSS?

Nasopharynx, conjunctivae, or purulent skin lesions
NOT from bullae