Flashcards in CV 2 Deck (37):
Type I collagen location
- Scar tissue
Think osteogenesis imperfecta
Type II collagen locations
- Vitreous humor
- Nucleus pulposus
Type III collagen locations
- Bone marrow
- Lymphatics, Granulation tissue
Think Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
Type IV collagen location
Think Alport syndrome
Acute organ rejection
- Occurs weeks after transplant
- Primarily cell-mediated
- HISTO: dense mononuclear lymphocytic infiltrate w/ myocyte damage
Purpose of double blind studies
To prevent observer bias (pt/researcher expectancy from interfering with the determination of the outcome)
Brain natriuretic peptide MOA
- Released by ventricles (whereas ANP is by atria) when stretched (e.g. CHF)
- Causes vasodilation (decreased preload)
- Also diuresis (dilates afferent and constricts efferent)
via cGMP => SM relaxation
First pharyngeal/aortic arch
2nd pharyngeal/aortic arch
Stapedial a. (regresses)
3rd pharyngeal/aortic arch
Common carotid, prox. internal coratid a.
4th pharyngeal/aortic arch
CN X (superior laryngeal branch)
True aortic arch
5th pharyngeal/aortic arch
6th pharyngeal/aortic arch
CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)
3rd degree heart block
- Atria and ventricles depolarize independently
- QRS complexes (ventricular dep) are narrow
- Atrial rate > ventricular rate
AV node can start initiating cells if the area between SA and AV is blocked
Diphtheria vaccine targets what?
IgG against exotoxin B subunit => prevents disease
B subunit promotes binding in oropharynx
A subunit inhibits ribosome function after B penetration
G(+) cocci that synthesizes dextrans from sucrose
S. viridans can cause subacute bacterial endocarditis. Why?
Happens post dental procedures/caries
(classically) Occurs in pts with preexisting cardiac valvular defects
Which artery determines coronary dominance (right or left side)?
Posterior descending artery
Where does the PDA originate in right side coronary dominant peeps?
Right coronary artery
Where does the PDA originate in left side coronary dominant peeps?
SE of ACEI
Because of bradykinin, substance P or prostaglandin accumulation
Dry, nonproductive, persistant cough
Acute-onset mid-chest pain that decreases when sitting up and leaning forward. Aggravated on inspiration
What is it?
Most common types of acute pericarditis
Most striking physical finding in acute pericarditis
Pericardial friction rub
Which beta receptor affects contractility?
Which beta receptor affects vasodilation?
Isoproterenol affects which receptors?
Increases contractility and decreases systemic vascular resistance
Mitral valve stenosis auscultation
- Opening snap
- Followed by diastolic rumbling murmur
Associated with cardiac tamponade
- Distant/muffled heart sounds on auscultation
Recent infection, lungs clear to auscultation
Pharm tx for transient ischemic attack?
Transient ischemic attack
- Brief, reversible episode of focal neuro dysfunction w/o infarction - NEGATIVE MRI
Resolves in 15 min
S4 sound, why?
- Decreased left ventricular compliance
- Associated w/ restrictive cardiomyopathy and L. ventricular hypertrophy
Low freq sound heart at end of diastole just before S1
Vit B12 and heart problems
- Deficiency => elevated homocysteine levels => increased risk of CV events
- B12 needed to remethylate homocysteine to form methionine
Highest burden of atherosclerosis. Which vessels?
- Abdominal aorta
- Coronary arteries
GO REVIEW THE RAAS SYSTEM
How do inflammatory macros reduce plaque stability in atherosclerosis?
This degrades collagen => thrombosis and/or thromboembolism