CV 2 Flashcards Preview

ID/LC Step Review > CV 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in CV 2 Deck (37):
1

Type I collagen location

- Dermis
- Bone
- Tendons
- Ligaments
- Scar tissue

Think osteogenesis imperfecta

2

Type II collagen locations

- Cartilage
- Vitreous humor
- Nucleus pulposus

3

Type III collagen locations

- Skin
- Lungs
- Bone marrow
- Lymphatics, Granulation tissue

Think Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

4

Type IV collagen location

Basement membranes

Think Alport syndrome

5

Acute organ rejection

- Occurs weeks after transplant
- Primarily cell-mediated
- HISTO: dense mononuclear lymphocytic infiltrate w/ myocyte damage

6

Purpose of double blind studies

To prevent observer bias (pt/researcher expectancy from interfering with the determination of the outcome)

7

Brain natriuretic peptide MOA

- Released by ventricles (whereas ANP is by atria) when stretched (e.g. CHF)
- Causes vasodilation (decreased preload)
- Also diuresis (dilates afferent and constricts efferent)

via cGMP => SM relaxation

8

First pharyngeal/aortic arch

CN V

Maxillary a.

9

2nd pharyngeal/aortic arch

CN VII

Stapedial a. (regresses)

10

3rd pharyngeal/aortic arch

CN IX

Common carotid, prox. internal coratid a.

11

4th pharyngeal/aortic arch

CN X (superior laryngeal branch)

True aortic arch

Subclavian a.

12

5th pharyngeal/aortic arch

Obliterated

13

6th pharyngeal/aortic arch

CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)

Pulm a.
Ductus arteriosus

14

3rd degree heart block

- Atria and ventricles depolarize independently
- QRS complexes (ventricular dep) are narrow
- Atrial rate > ventricular rate

AV node can start initiating cells if the area between SA and AV is blocked

15

Diphtheria vaccine targets what?

IgG against exotoxin B subunit => prevents disease

B subunit promotes binding in oropharynx

A subunit inhibits ribosome function after B penetration

16

G(+) cocci that synthesizes dextrans from sucrose

S. viridans

17

S. viridans can cause subacute bacterial endocarditis. Why?

Happens post dental procedures/caries

(classically) Occurs in pts with preexisting cardiac valvular defects

18

Which artery determines coronary dominance (right or left side)?

Posterior descending artery

19

Where does the PDA originate in right side coronary dominant peeps?

Right coronary artery

70%

20

Where does the PDA originate in left side coronary dominant peeps?

LCX

10%

21

SE of ACEI

COUGH!!!

Because of bradykinin, substance P or prostaglandin accumulation

Dry, nonproductive, persistant cough

22

Acute-onset mid-chest pain that decreases when sitting up and leaning forward. Aggravated on inspiration

What is it?

Acute pericarditis

23

Most common types of acute pericarditis

Fibrinous

Serofibrinous

24

Most striking physical finding in acute pericarditis

Pericardial friction rub

25

Which beta receptor affects contractility?

B1

26

Which beta receptor affects vasodilation?

B2

27

Isoproterenol affects which receptors?

B1/B2 (nonselective)

Increases contractility and decreases systemic vascular resistance

28

Mitral valve stenosis auscultation

Over apex

- Opening snap
- Followed by diastolic rumbling murmur

29

Beck's triad

Associated with cardiac tamponade

- Hypotension
- JVD
- Distant/muffled heart sounds on auscultation

Also tachy

Recent infection, lungs clear to auscultation

30

Pharm tx for transient ischemic attack?

BP control

Statin

Aspirin

31

Transient ischemic attack

- Brief, reversible episode of focal neuro dysfunction w/o infarction - NEGATIVE MRI

Resolves in 15 min

32

S4 sound, why?

- Decreased left ventricular compliance
- Associated w/ restrictive cardiomyopathy and L. ventricular hypertrophy

Low freq sound heart at end of diastole just before S1

33

Vit B12 and heart problems

- Deficiency => elevated homocysteine levels => increased risk of CV events
- B12 needed to remethylate homocysteine to form methionine

34

Highest burden of atherosclerosis. Which vessels?

- Abdominal aorta
- Coronary arteries

35

GO REVIEW THE RAAS SYSTEM

NOW

36

How do inflammatory macros reduce plaque stability in atherosclerosis?

Secreting metalloproteinases

This degrades collagen => thrombosis and/or thromboembolism

37

Why do you get heavy calcifications on the aortic valve?

- Because of dystrophic calcification
- Occurs after all types of necrosis (cell injury and death)

Hematoxylin and eosin staining

In setting of normal Ca levels