Neuro/Psych 7 Flashcards Preview

ID/LC Step Review > Neuro/Psych 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neuro/Psych 7 Deck (40):
1

What does the middle cerebral artery supply in the brain?

- Face/arms of motor and sensory cortex
- Broca and Wernicke speech areas
- Frontal eye field

2

What is Broca aphasia?

- Inability to speak or write
- Preserved comprehension of spoken/written word
-

3

Occlusion of the MCA

- Hemiparesis of contralateral arm > leg
- can also have aphasia

4

Adjustment disorder

- ^ed anxiety, depression or disturbed behavior
- Develops w/in 3 months of an identifiable stressor
- Lasts no more than 6m

No psychosis

5

Schizophreniform disorder

- Psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech & behavior, negative sxs)
- Last 1-6 months

6

Blotchy red muscle fibers on Gomori trichome stain

Mitochondrial myopathies

"red ragged" muscle fibers are seen in mitochondrial disease

7

Antidepressant monotherapy in a person w/ bipolar risk/disease

- Can induce mania
- Especially in those with unrecognizable bipolar disorder

8

Bacterial meningititis CSF `labs

- ^ PMN
- ^ protein
- v glucose

9

Leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults

S pneumo

10

Gram stain of S pneumo

- Lancet shaped
- G(+) cocci in pairs

11

Key features of paranoid personality disorders

- Suspicious
- Distrustful
- Hypervigilant

12

Key features of schizoid

- Prefers to be a loner
- Detached
- Unemotional

13

Schizotypal

- Eccentric
- Odd thoughts, perceptions, behaviors

14

Antisocial

- Disregard & violation of rights of others

15

Borderline

- Chaotic relationshiops
- Sensitivity to abandonment
- Labile mood
- Impulsivity
- Inner emptiness
- Self-harm

16

Histrionic

- Dramatic
- Superficial
- Attention-seeking

17

Narcissistic

- Grandiosity
- Lack of empathy

18

Avoidant

- Avoidance due to fears of criticism and rejection

19

Dependent

- Submissive
- Clingy
- Needs to be taken care of

20

OCD

- Rigid
- Controlling
- Perfectionistic

21

Tricyclic antidepressants MOA and SEs

- Strong anticholinergic properties

SEs:
- confusion
- constipation
- urinary retention

Treat w/ caution in elderly due to comorbid conditions, decreased hepatic/renal clearance and higher burden of SEs

22

Acoustic neuromas

- Schwann cell-derived tumors
- Typically arise from the vestibular portion of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CNVIII)
- Commonly located at cerebellopontine angle (between cerebellum and lateral pons)

Presents with:
- sensorineural hearing loss
- tinnitus

23

Characteristic microscopic findings of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

- Abnormal prion protein
- Vacuoles in gray matter w/ NO inflammatory changes

Aka
Spongiform encephalopathy

24

Why do you get bradykinesia and rigidity with Parkinson disease?

Reduced activity of the thalamus & its projections to the cortex

25

Where do you do high-frequency deep brain stimulation for medically intractable symptoms of Parkinson disease?

- Globus pallidus internus
- Subthalamic nucleus

Promotes thalamo-cortical disinhibition

26

Non-rhythmic conjugate eye movements

Myoclonus

Describes opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome

Associated with neuroblastoma in young kids

27

Neuroblastoma

- Most common extracranial childhood cancer
- Develops from neuroblasts of adrenal medulla
- Mean age = 2yo
- Increased # of copies of N-myc gene

28

Where does the trigeminal nerve arise in the brainstem?

- Middle cerebellar peduncle @ lateral aspect of mid-pons

29

Infarcts involving anterior portion of medial pons

- Affect trigeminal nerve
- Dysarthria
- Contralateral ataxic hemiparesis

Facial n. is CAUDAL

30

Ischemic stroke microscropic changes - 12-24hrs

"Red neurons"

Eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, loss of Nissl substance

31

Ischemic stroke microscropic changes - 24-72 hrs

Neutrophilic infiltration

32

Ischemic stroke microscopic changes - 3-7 days

Macrophage/Microglia infiltration

Phagocytosis begins

33

Ischemic stroke microscropic/macroscopic changes - 1-2 weeks

Micro:
Reactive gliosis & vascular proliferation around necrotic area

Macro:
- Liquefactive necrosis

34

Ischemic stroke micro/macroscropic changes >2 weeks

Micro:
- Glial scar formation

Macro:
- Cystic area surrounded by dense glial fibers

35

Liquefactive necrosis

- Complete digestion & removal of necrotic tissue
- With formation of cystic cavity

Hypoxic CNS injury is often followed by liquefactive necrosis

36

CSF w. spherical yeast forms w/ thick capsules

Think Cryptococcus neoformans

Associated w/HIV and starts as a lung infection

37

Generation and propogation of APs

B/c of voltage-gated Na channels

38

Once Na (AP) reaches axon terminal, what happens

Voltage-gated Ca channels open

Allow influx of Ca

Causes fusion and release of NT vesicles into synaptic cleft

39

Myotonic dystrophy

AD

Caused by ^ed # of CTG repeats on myotonia-protein kinase gene

Sustained myotonia w/ wkness and atrophy is common

Cataracts, frontal balding, gonadal atrophy

40

Damage to optic nerve

- Light in that eye will cause neither pupil to constrict (nerve can't see shit)

Contralateral is normal