Flashcards in Pulm 1 Deck (29):
Rubber like qualities of elastin due to...?
Extensive cross linking between elastin monomers
Facilitated by lysyl oxidase
Legionnaire's disease clinical findings
- Very high fever
- HA, confusion (CNS findings)
- Lab studies = hyponatremia
G(-) rod -- not detected on gram stain
Most common form of CF
- Mutation in CFTR gene
- Causes defective post-translational folding and glycosylation
- Result => degradation of membrane protein before it reaches cell surface
Kartagener syndrome triad
- Situs inversus
- Chronic sinusitis
Pathophysiology of Kartagener syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Mutations => failure to form dynein arms in cilia => immotility
Recurrent resp infections, infertility (sperm in men, fallopian tubes in women)
PE is associated with what on an ABG?
Centriacinar emphysema inflammatory infiltrate...?
Why does pus/sputum turn green because of a bacterial infections?
Presence of myeloperoxidase
- blue/green heme-based enzyme
- released from PMN azurophilic granules
- Forms hypochlorous acid
Most common non-small cell lung cancer
- Found in women and non-smokers
Which lungs cancers are associated with smoking?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma
- Located peripherally
- Consists of tumor cells that form glandular or papillary structures
Mycobacterium avium complex
- Common opportunistic infection
- Causes disseminated disease in HIV+ pts
Cromolyn & nedocromil MOA
- Inhibit mast cell degraulation (prevents release of histamine)
Prevent acute attacks
Less effective than inhaled steroids
Considered 2nd-line for tx of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma
Pleuritic chest pain
- Sharp, localized, often severe
- Can be due to PNA
- Exacerbated by coughing, breathing, or changing position
- Worse on inspiration
- Results from any inflammation of the pleura
Referred pain from pleuritic chest pain
C3-C5 distribution (based of neck and over the shoulder)
Phrenic nerve irritation
Diaphragmatic and mediastinal pleura pain fibers
Cancer associated with asbestos exposure?
Epiglottitis presentation (sx)
- Acute fever
- Inspiratory stridor
- (+) "thumb sign" on lateral cervical x-ray (b/c of edema)
H Flu vx develops Abs to what?
- Polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP
- Response to capsular material
Facilitates complement-dependent phagocytosis and killing through opsonization
- Cholinergic muscarinic agonist
- Commonly used as an inhaled test substance for pts thought to have asthma
What is diffusing capacity?
- How much oxygen travels from alveoli to blood stream
- Decreased diffusing capacity = destruction of alveoli and adjoining cap beds
How do you measure fetal lung maturity via amniotic fluid?
Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) : Sphingomyelin (L/S ratio)
Via amniotic fluid, how do you know when fetal lungs are mature?
L/S ratio is 2:1 or higher
Lecithin sharply increases after 30 weeks gestation
Two types of CD4+ T-helper cells
What does Th1 secrete?
What does Th1 activate?
- CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells
Think type 4 delayed hypersensitivity
What does Th2 secrete?
What does Th2 activate?
- B-cell Abs
IL-4 and IL-13 do what?
Class switching to IgE