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Flashcards in CV Drugs 1 Deck (30):
1

what is the MOA of methylxanthines?

Phosphodiesterase inhibition > inc. amounts of cAMP > inc. release of ENDOGENOUS epinephrine

2

T/F: methylxanthines are cardiac stimulants

TRUE, include aminophylline and theophylline

3

what is the main effect of methylxanthines?

bronchodilation! direct relaxation of smooth m. in bronchi and pulmonary vasculature

4

what type of arrhythmia are methylxanthines occasionally used for?

bradyarrhythmias i.e. AV block

5

in what situation are methylxanthines contraindicated?

patients with severe cardiac disease or hypertensions (risk tachycardia, worsen tachyarrhythmias)

6

T/F: methylxanthines induce diuresis making them cardiac diuretics

TRUE

7

what is the major difference between aminophylline and theophylline?

aminophylline is the parenteral form of theophylline

8

what is the most commonly used catecholamine for CHF due to myocardial failure?

dobutamine = B-1 agonist

9

what might occur if you use methylxanthines with a severely hypoxic patient?

you may worsen V/Q mismatch

10

what is a cardiac stimulant that is also one of the drugs of choice for treatment of calcium channel blocker toxicity?

glucagon

11

what cardiac stimulant is one of the drugs of choice for emergency treatment of hyperkalemia?

calcium salts

12

what categories of drugs would you use for pharmacologic therapy of CHF?

- + inotropes
- vasodilators
- inodilators
- diuretics
- beta-blockers

13

what adjunctive therapy can you do in addition to pharmacologic therapy for CHF?

-sodium-restricted diet
-exercise restriction
- oxygen therapy

14

T/F: digoxin is used extra-label and is a cardiac stimulant

FALSE, digoxin is a positive inotropic drug

15

what kind of metabolism does digoxin undergo?

enterohepatic recirculation

16

T/F: digoxin is excreted mainly in renal in cats and renal and hepatic in dogs and horses

FALSE, opposite

17

what sort of renal effect do you see with the use of digoxin?

= cardiac diuretic, secondary to increased CO

18

T/F: acute use in digoxin will result in HYPERkalemia while chronic use will result in HYPOkalemia

TRUE

19

what is the number one adverse effect of digoxin?

GI signs ( irritation, vomiting, nausea, anorexia, diarrhea)

20

what type of digoxin-induced arrythmias are possible?

TACHYarrhythmias

21

what is the specific antidote for digoxin toxicity?

digoxin immune Fab (Digibind)

22

what drug can you use if you have digoxin toxicity and want to decrease enterohepatic recirculation?

cholestyramine

23

what are the two clinical uses for digoxin?

CHF and atrial fibrillation or flutter

24

besides serving as a positive inotrope what other major effect does pimobendan have?

vasodilator! = PDE III inhibitor which results in arterial and venous dilation (reduced preload and afterload)

25

what is the route of administration for pimobendan?

ORAL, aborption is rapid

26

what are the two major contraindications for the use of pimobendan?

HCM (cats) and aortic stenosis

27

what is the drug of choice for the treatment of CHF in dogs?

pimobendan, improves quality and length of life in dogs w/ DCM and MMVD

28

which of the following is not a clinical effect associated w/ theophylline?
a. tachycardia
b. bronchodilation
c. bradycardia
d. increased urination

c. bradycardia

29

which of the following best describes the MOA of pimobendan?
a. inodilator through myocardial sensitization to calcium & PDE III inhibition
b. inodilator through increases intracellular calcium available for exchange w/ sodium
c. positive inotrope through beta-1 receptor agonism
d. negative chronotrope through beta-1 receptor antagonism

a. inodilator through myocardial sensitization to calcium & PDE III inhibition

30

which of the following drugs used concurrently w/ digoxin may increase the risk of signs of digoxin toxicity?
a. furosemide
b. spironolactone
c. pimobendan
d. none of these

a. furosemide (MOA is inhibition of Na/K symport)