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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Deck (32):
1

what must you always do when treating an animal for anorexia/hyporexia?

identify and treat the underlying cause!! almost always a secondary issue

2

what part of the brain is the appetite center and satiety center?

hypothalamus

3

name two GABA agonists used to stimulate appetite

benzodiazepines (diazepam, midazolam) and propofol

4

T/F: propofol is more short term than benzodiazepines when used for appetite stimulation

TRUE, about 15 min. benzodiazepines are also useful short term

5

what can giving a cat PO diazepam cause?

hepatotoxicity

6

why might you be cautious in giving a cat propofol to stimulate appetite?

heinz body anemia is possible if given for more than 5 days

7

what appetite stimulant is fairly new and only labeled for dogs?

capromorelin

8

what is the MOA of capromorelin?

ghrelin agonist, as ghrelin increases in [ ] the hypothalamus is stimulated to increase appetite

9

what two appetite stimulant's common side effect is sedation?

benzodiazepines and cyproheptadine

10

T/F: cyproheptadine is more effective in dogs than cats and takes 2-3 days to see a response

FALSE, it's more effective in cats

11

what is the MOA of cyproheptadine?

blocks serotonin (5-HT2) receptors, inhibits satiety center

12

what is the MOA of mirtazapine?

antidepressant that blocks both 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 (serotonin) receptors, increases NE centrally

13

T/F: mirtazapine is used more in dogs while cyproheptadine is more effective in cats

TRUE

14

besides being an antidepressant and appetite stimulant, mirtazapine also has what effect?

anti-emetic

15

T/F: cats have MORE a-2 and 5 HT receptors and FEWER D2 and H1 receptors than dogs

TRUE

16

quick! bear just ate a whole bag of m&ms and we're 5 hours away from the nearest clinic. what can you give him to induce vomiting?

hydrogen peroxide 3%

17

what is the MOA of hydrogen peroxide 3% to induce vomiting?

direct irritation of oropharynx/GI lining

18

why can't you use hydrogen peroxide 3% for a cat?

hemorrhagic gastritis

19

T/F: hydrogen peroxide 3% is a centrally acting emetic

FALSE, peripheral

20

oops! i gave WAY too much apomorphine to one of my dog patients and now he's going into respiratory distress. what can i give him to reverse the effects?

naloxone! DOES NOT reveres emetic effect

21

apomorphine isn't very effective in cats. what is a better choice if i need to make simba vomit?

xylazine or dexmedetomidine

22

why are xylazine or dexmedetomidine more effective as an emetic in a cat vs. a dog?

cats have MORE a-2 receptors and FEWER d2 receptors. it's all about receptors!!

23

what is the MOA of xylazine and dexmedetomidine as emetics?

a-2 agonists

24

i just gave comet maropitant citrate SC and he tried biting me! what gives?

give comet a break, that shit stings!

25

what are the two different levels that NK1 receptors work at?

blocks substance P and works at the CRTZ and peripherally the GIT

26

emetic center =

CRTZ

27

what is the MOA of maropitant citrate?

NK1 antagonist

28

what two things are maropitant labeled for?

prevention in motion sickness in dogs and acute vomiting in dogs and cats

29

in what situation is maropitant citrate contraindicated?

bone marrow suppression w/ high doses in young dogs

30

what anti-emetic prokinetic, works at D2 receptors and also blocks 5-HT3 receptors?

metoclopramide

31

T/F: ondansetron acts on serotonin receptors centrally AND peripherally

TRUE

32

if ondansetron is more potent than metoclopramide then why would a vet choose to prescribe metoclopramide?

ondansetron is spendy $$