CV Drugs 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CV Drugs 4 Deck (38):
1

what are the vitamin k-dependent factors?

coagulation factors II, VII, X, IX

2

crap! bear just ate rodenticide! what do i do?!

give phytonadione (vitamin K1) = antidote

3

what is the drug of choice for treatment of bleeding disorders associated w/ vitamin K1 deficiency?

phytonadione (vitamin K1)

4

what can happen if you give phytonadione (vitamin K1) IV?

risk of anaphylaxis!

5

what is the drug of choice for treatment of hemorrhage secondary to heparin over dosage?

protamine sulfate

6

what are the possible consequences of giving an IV injection of protamine sulfate rapidly?

-hypotension
-bradycardia
-pulmonary hypertension
-dyspnea
-possible hypersensitivity rxn

7

what is the MOA of protamine sulfate?

strong basic compound complexes w/ heparin to form inactive stable salt (neutralizes it!)

8

what is aminocaproic acid used to treat for?

conditions associated w/ increased bleeding due to hyperfibrinolysis (inhibits fibrinolysis)

9

what drug is used prophylactically to prevent post-operative bleeding in greyhounds?

aminocaproic acid

10

of the hemostatic agents which drug is an antifibrinolytic?

aminocaproic acid

11

of the hemostatic agents which drug is a hormonal agent?

desmopressin acetate

12

ugh bears at it again. he got into the aspirin and has aspirin toxicity! what hemostatic agent can i use to treat?

desmopressin acetate

13

what is the MOA of desmopressin acetate?

dose-dependent increase in plasma factor VIII and plasminogen factor

14

what is the drug of choice for treatment of bleeding due to vonWillebrand's disease in dobermans?

desmopressin acetate

15

what is the drug of choice for treatment of central diabetes insipidus?

desmopressin acetate

16

what is the MOA of unfractioned heparin?

binds to antithrombin III > prevents the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

17

T/F: low-molecular weight heparins have more of an impact on thrombin and clotting times than unfractionated heparin

FALSE, opposite

18

name two low-molecular weight heparins

dalteparin and enoxaparin

19

what anticoagulant must you monitor with aPTT coag times?

unfractionated heparin

20

what is the big difference between unfractionated heparin compared to low-molecular weight heparins?

low-molecular weight heparins preferentially inhibit factor Xa and have less impact on thrombin and clotting times

21

what drugs can you use to treat deep vein thrombosis, thromboembolic diseases and pulmonary embolisms?

low-molecular weight heparins; dalteparin and enoxaparin

22

T/F: dalteparin and enoxaparin must be given IV slowly

FALSE, must be given SQ > may require frequent dosing in dogs/cats

23

what drug is an indirect anticoagulant?

warfarin sodium -1st generation

24

what is the MOA of warfarin sodium -1st generation?

inhibits the enzyme VITAMIN K EPOXIDE REDUCTASE > interferes w/ ability to synthesize coagulation factors

25

which antithrombotic is contraindicated with GI ulceration and active GI bleeding?

aspirin! NSAID and clopidogrel bisulfate (platelet aggregation inhibitor)

26

what is the MOA of aspirin?

reduces platelet aggregation through inhibiting synthesis of thromboxane A2

27

what drug is used for prophylaxis or treatment of thrombotic disease?

aspirin and clopidogrel bisulfate (antithrombotics)

28

T/F: aspirin has a VERY short half-life in cats

FALSE, very LONG

29

what drug is used for feline aortic thromboembolism (FAT CAT trial)

clopidogrel bisulfate

30

name three thrombolytics

streptokinase, urokinase, and t-PA

31

what is the MOA of thrombolytics?

activate plasminogen to breakdown existing clots > thrombolysis

32

what does streptokinase, urokinase, and t-PA treat?

existing thrombus or thromboembolism

33

whats the major difference between streptokinase, urokinase, and t-PA?

t-PA is fibrin clot specific, must be there

34

what do we worry about when it comes to using antithrombolytics?

life-threatening hemorrhage possible!

35

which of the following drugs act by inhibiting fibrinolysis?
a. vitamin K1
b. protamine sulfate
c. aminocaproic acid
d. clopidogrel

c. aminocaproic acid

36

which of the following is the specific antidote for anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity?
a. vitamin K1
b. protamine sulfate
c. aminocaproic acid
d. clopidogrel

a. vitamin K1

37

what is the MOA of clopidogrel?
a. anti-platelet aggregation through thromboxane A2 inhibition
b. anti-platelet aggregation through ADP inhibition
c. anticoagulation through factor Xa inhibition
d. antifibrinolysis

b. anti-platelet aggregation through ADP inhibition

38

which of the following is best described as a fibrin clot-specific thrombolytic?
a. streptokinase
b. urokinase
c. dalteparin
d. t-PA

d. t-PA