Flashcards in CV Drugs 3 Deck (28):
name two ace inhibitors
enalapril and benazepril
where are local RAS systems located?
heart, kidney, brain, adrenal glands, etc.
what organ converts enalapril and benazepril?
T/F: benazepril has more hepatic clearance than renal clearance compared to enalapril
TRUE, enalapril is only renal clearance
which ace inhibitor would be more appropriate for a patient with impaired renal function?
between benazepril and enalapril which drug is longer acting?
what are ace inhibitors used to treat?
-protein losing renal disease (reduce intraglomerular hypertension)
T/F: benazepril has more GI signs than enalapril
what group of drugs pose a risk of worsening azotemia due to decreasing GFR?
ace inhibitors, watch out w/ patients w/ systemic hypertension & pre-exisiting renal disease
T/F: sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor
TRUE, PDE V inhibitor > increased cGMP > NO mediated vasodilation
what muscle does sildenifil work on?
smooth muscle of pulmonary vasculature
what is sildenifil primarily used to treat for?
what drug is used to treat eisenmenger's syndrome?
T/F: below are all categories of pulmonary hypertension
-chronic respiratory disease
-neoplasia or obstructive disease
TRUE, all might indicate the use of sildenafil
what do you want to avoid using concurrently w/ sildenafil?
name three direct-acting vasodilators
nitroprusside, nitroglycerine, hydralazine
what potent endogenous vasodilator do nitrates increase the formation of?
nitric oxide (NO) > activates guanylyl cyclase
what is the result of the MOA of nitrates?
direct arteriolar and venous vasodilation
what is the MOA of hydralazine?
increases local PGI2 concentration altering cellular calcium metabolism in smooth muscle
T/F: like nitrates, hydralazine results in direct arteriolar and venous vasodilation
FALSE, arteriolar only
you have a patient in a hypertensive crisis! what group of drugs do you grab?
direct-acting vasodilators (nitrates, hydralizine)
what direct-acting vasodilator is contraindicated with renal disease?
hydralazine, pre-treat w/ ACE-I & spironolactone to reduce risk
T/F: amolodipine as a ca channel blocker has clinically significant antiarrhythmic effects
what is the MOA of amlodipine?
inhibits the influx of extracellular calcium across myocardial and smooth m. cell membranes > DILATION of coronary and systemic arteries
what are the clinical effects of amlodipine?
-negative inotropic effects
-negative chronotropic effects
-increase oxygen delivery to myocardial tissue
-decrease peripheral resistance
-decrease systemic BP
what is the drug of choice in first line treatment of hypertension in cats?
sassy the cat comes in with hypertension due to hyperthyroidism. what drug might you use?
beta-blocker is preferred (propanolol)