Flashcards in Data - Cardiovascular Deck (21):
Lipid deposits on palmar and extensor surfaces of hands, and other tendons?
Lipid deposits on eyelids?
Creamy yellow discolouration to boundary of iris?
Corneal arcus - cholesterol deposits
Collapsing pulse a sign of what?
Slow rising pulse a sign of what?
Severe aortic stenosis
Pulsus paradoxus causes?
Causes of secondary hypertension?
Renal arterial disease
Coarctation of the aorta
Adult polycystic kidney disease
What are septal leads?
V1 and V2 - LAD
What are inferior leads?
II, III and aVF - RCA >> LCx
What are anterior leads?
V3 and V4 - LAD
What are lateral leads?
I, aVL, V5, V6 - LCx
Draw and explain the JVP waveform
a - atria contracting
c - tricuspid valve closing (start of systole)
v - atria filled
x - ventricles contracting and emptying
y - atria emptying (before contracting)
Funnel chest proper name - sternum pushed in (posteriorly)
Pigeon chest proper name - sternum pushed out (anteriorly)?
Bell of stethoscope useful for what in auscultating the heart?
Apex and left sternal edge:
diastolic murmur (mitral stenosis)
3rd and 4th heart sounds
S1 and S2 heart sounds are due to what?
S1 - atrioventricular valves closing - start of ventricular systole
S2 - pulmonary/aortic valves closing - end of ventricular systole
Aortic stenosis murmur?
Ejection systolic murmur - not pan-systolic
Best heard at upper right sternal edge and radiates to carotids
Mitral regurgitation murmur?
Best heard at apex and radiates to axilla
Diastolic murmurs? Types and causes
"early" diastolic murmur - aortic regurgitation - best heard at left sternal edge leaning forward, breath held out
Mid diastolic murmur - mitral stenosis - best heard with bell at apex
Ankle to brachial pressure index
<0.9 = significant lower limb ischaemia; intermittent claudication
<0.4 = critical limb ischaemia