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3rd Year > Data - Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Data - Cardiovascular Deck (21):
1

Lipid deposits on palmar and extensor surfaces of hands, and other tendons?

Xanthomata

2

Lipid deposits on eyelids?

Xanthelasmata

3

Creamy yellow discolouration to boundary of iris?

Corneal arcus - cholesterol deposits

4

Collapsing pulse a sign of what?

Aortic regurgitation

5

Slow rising pulse a sign of what?

Severe aortic stenosis

6

Pulsus paradoxus causes?

Cardiac tamponade
Constrictive pericarditis

7

Causes of secondary hypertension?

Renal arterial disease
Phaeochromocytoma
Conn's Syndrome
Cushing's syndrome
Coarctation of the aorta
Adult polycystic kidney disease

8

ECG leads:
What are septal leads?

V1 and V2 - LAD

9

ECG leads:
What are inferior leads?

II, III and aVF - RCA >> LCx

10

ECG leads:
What are anterior leads?

V3 and V4 - LAD

11

ECG leads:
What are lateral leads?

I, aVL, V5, V6 - LCx

12

Draw and explain the JVP waveform

Peaks:
a - atria contracting
c - tricuspid valve closing (start of systole)
v - atria filled
Troughs:
x - ventricles contracting and emptying
y - atria emptying (before contracting)

13

Funnel chest proper name - sternum pushed in (posteriorly)

Pectus excavatum

14

Pigeon chest proper name - sternum pushed out (anteriorly)?

Pectus carinatum

15

Bell of stethoscope useful for what in auscultating the heart?

Apex and left sternal edge:
diastolic murmur (mitral stenosis)
3rd and 4th heart sounds

16

S1 and S2 heart sounds are due to what?

S1 - atrioventricular valves closing - start of ventricular systole
S2 - pulmonary/aortic valves closing - end of ventricular systole

17

Aortic stenosis murmur?

Ejection systolic murmur - not pan-systolic
Best heard at upper right sternal edge and radiates to carotids

18

Mitral regurgitation murmur?

Pan systolic
Best heard at apex and radiates to axilla

19

Diastolic murmurs? Types and causes

"early" diastolic murmur - aortic regurgitation - best heard at left sternal edge leaning forward, breath held out
Mid diastolic murmur - mitral stenosis - best heard with bell at apex

20

ABPI?

Ankle to brachial pressure index
<0.9 = significant lower limb ischaemia; intermittent claudication
<0.4 = critical limb ischaemia

21

Discolouration of lower legs in chronic venous insufficiency?

Lipodermatosclerosis
Haemosiderin deposition in skin
May be deep blue/black, purple, bright red