Flashcards in Davis Pediatric Gastrointestinal Disorders NCLEX Questions Deck (62)
A 10-year-old is being evaluated for possible appendicitis and complains of nausea and sharp abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant. An abdominal ultrasound is scheduled, and a blood count has been obtained. The child vomits, finds the pain relieved, and calls the nurse. Which should be the nurse’s next action? 1. Cancel the ultrasound, and obtain an order for oral Zofran (ondansetron). 2. Cancel the ultrasound, and prepare to administer an intravenous bolus. 3. Prepare for the probable discharge of the patient. 4. Immediately notify the physician of the child’s status.
4. The physician should be notified immediately, as a sudden change or loss of pain often indicates a perforated appendix
A 4-month-old has had vomiting and diarrhea for 24 hours. The infant is fussy, and the anterior fontanel is sunken. The nurse notes the infant does not produce tears when crying. Which task will help confirm the diagnosis of dehydration? 1. Urinalysis obtained by bagged specimen. 2. Urinalysis obtained by sterile catheterization. 3. Analysis of serum electrolytes. 4. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.
3. The analysis of serum electrolytes offers the most information and assists with the diagnosis of dehydration.
A 4-month-old is brought to the emergency department with severe dehydration. The heart rate is 198, and her blood pressure is 68/38. The infant’s anterior fontanel is sunken. The nurse notes that the infant does not cry when the intravenous line is inserted. The child’s parents state that she has not “held anything down” in 18 hours. The nurse obtains a finger-stick blood sugar of 94. Which would the nurse expect to do immediately? 1. Administer a bolus of normal saline. 2. Administer a bolus of D10W. 3. Administer a bolus of normal saline with 5% dextrose added to the solution. 4. Offer the child an oral rehydrating solution such as Pedialyte.
1. Dehydration is corrected with the administration of an isotonic solution, such as normal saline or lactated Ringer solution
A child is diagnosed with chronic constipation that has been unresponsive to dietary and activity changes. Which pharmacological measure is most appropriate? 1. Natural supplements and herbs. 2. Stimulant laxative. 3. Osmotic agent. 4. Pharmacological measures are not used in pediatric constipation.
3. A stool softener is the drug of choice because it will lead to easier evacuation.
An expectant mother asks the nurse if her new baby will have an umbilical hernia. The nurse bases the response on the fact that it occurs: 1. More often in large infants. 2. In white infants more than in African American infants. 3. Twice as often in male infants. 4. More often in premature infants.
4. Umbilical hernias occur more often in premature infants.
More education about necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is needed in a nursing in-service when one of the participants states: 1. “Encouraging the mother to pump her milk for the feedings helps prevent NEC.” 2. “Some sources state that the occurrence of NEC has increased because so many preterm infants are surviving.” 3. “When signs of sepsis appear, the infant will likely deteriorate quickly.” 4. “NEC occurs only in preemies and low-birth-weight infants.”
4. Although much more common in preterm and low-birth-weight infants, NEC is also seen in term infants as well.
The mother of a newborn asks the nurse why the infant has to nurse so frequently. Which is the best response? 1. Formula tends to be more calorically dense, and formula-fed babies require fewer feedings than breastfed babies. 2. The newborn’s stomach capacity is small, and peristalsis is slow. 3. The newborn’s stomach capacity is small, and peristalsis is more rapid than in older children. 4. Breastfed babies tend to take longer to complete a feeding than formula-fed babies.
3. The small-stomach capacity and rapid movement of fluid through the digestive system account for the need for small frequent feedings
The nurse is administering Prilosec (omeprazole) to a 3-month-old with gastro- esophageal reflux (GER). The child’s parents ask the nurse how the medication works. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “Prilosec is a proton pump inhibitor that is commonly used for reflux in infants.” 2. “Prilosec decreases stomach acid, so it will not be as irritating when your child spits up.” 3. “Prilosec helps food move through the stomach quicker, so there will be less chance for reflux.” 4. “Prilosec relaxes the pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter.”
2. This accurate description gives the parents information that is clear and concise
The nurse is caring for a 1-month-old term infant who experienced an anoxic episode at birth. The health-care team suspects that the infant is developing necrotizing en- terocolitis (NEC). Which would the nurse expect to be included in the plan of care? 1. Immediately remove the feeding nasogastric tube (NGT) from the infant. 2. Obtain vital signs every 4 hours. 3. Prepare to administer antibiotics intravenously. 4. Change feedings to half-strength, administer slowly via a feeding pump.
3. Intravenous antibiotics are administered to prevent or treat sepsis.
The nurse is caring for a 14-year-old with celiac disease. The nurse knows that the patient understands the diet instructions by ordering which of the following meals? 1. Eggs, bacon, rye toast, and lactose-free milk. 2. Pancakes, orange juice, and sausage links. 3. Oat cereal, breakfast pastry, and nonfat skim milk. 4. Cheese, banana slices, rice cakes, and whole milk.
4. Cheese, banana slices, rice cakes, and whole milk do not contain gluten.
The nurse is caring for a 2-year-old child who was admitted to the pediatric unit for moderate dehydration due to vomiting and diarrhea. The child is restless, with periods of irritability. The child is afebrile with a heart rate of 148 and a blood pressure of 90/42. Baseline laboratory tests reveal the following: Na 152, Cl 119, and glucose 115. The parents state that the child has not urinated in 12 hours. After establishing a saline lock, the nurse reviews the physician’s orders. Which order should the nurse question? 1. Administer a saline bolus of 10 mL/kg, which may be repeated if the child does not urinate. 2. Recheck serum electrolytes in 12 hours. 3. After the saline bolus, begin maintenance fluids of D5 1/4 NS with 10 mEq KCl/L. 4. Give clear liquid diet as tolerated.
3. Potassium is contraindicated because the child has not yet urinated. Potassium is not added to the maintenance fluid until kidney function has been verified.
The nurse is caring for a 3-month-old being evaluated for possible Hirschsprung disease. His parents call the nurse and show her his diaper containing a large amount of mucus and bloody diarrhea. The nurse notes that the infant is irritable and his abdomen appears very distended. Which should be the nurse’s next action? 1. Reassure the parents that this is an expected finding and not uncommon. 2. Call a code for a potential cardiac arrest, and stay with the infant. 3. Immediately obtain all vital signs with a quick head-to-toe assessment. 4. Obtain a stool sample for occult blood.
3. All vital signs need to be evaluated because the child with enterocolitis can quickly progress to a state of shock. A quick head-to-toe assessment will allow the nurse to evaluate the child’s circulatory system.
The nurse is caring for a 3-month-old infant who has short bowel syndrome (SBS) and has been receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The parents ask if their child will ever be able to eat. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “Children with SBS are never able to eat and must receive all of their nutrition in intravenous form.” 2. “You will have to start feeding your child because children cannot be on TPN longer than 6 months.” 3. “We will start feeding your child soon so that the bowel continues to receive stimulation.” 4. “Your child will start receiving tube feedings soon but will never be able to eat by mouth.”
3. It is important to begin feedings as soon as the bowel is healed so that it receives stimulation and does not atrophy.
The nurse is caring for a 3-year-old who had an appendectomy 2 days ago. The child has a fever of 101.8°F (38.8°C) and breath sounds are slightly diminished in the right lower lobe. Which action is most appropriate? 1. Teach the child how to use an incentive spirometer. 2. Encourage the child to blow bubbles. 3. Obtain an order for intravenous antibiotics. 4. Obtain an order for Tylenol (acetaminophen).
2. Blowing bubbles is a developmentally appropriate way to help the preschooler take deep breaths and cough.
The nurse is caring for a 4-month-old who has just had an isolated cleft lip repaired. Select the best position for the child in the immediate post-operative period. 1. Right side-lying. 2. Left side-lying. 3. Supine. 4. Prone.
3. The supine position is preferred because there is decreased risk of the infant rubbing the suture line.
The nurse is caring for a 4-month-old with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). The infant is due to receive Zantac (rantadine). Based on the medication’s mechanism of action, when should this medication be administered? 1. Immediately before a feeding. 2. 30 minutes after the feeding. 3. 30 minutes before the feeding. 4. At bedtime.
3. Zantac decreases gastric acid secretion and should be administered 30 minutes before a feeding.
The nurse is caring for a 5-month-old infant with a diagnosis of intussusception. The infant has periods of irritability during which the knees are brought to chest and the infant cries, alternating with periods of lethargy. Vital signs are stable and within age-appropriate limits. The physician elects to give an enema. The parents ask the purpose of the enema. Select the nurse’s most appropriate response. 1. “The enema will confirm the diagnosis. If the test result is positive, your child will need to have surgery to correct the intussusception.” 2. “The enema will confirm the diagnosis. Although very unlikely, the enema may also help fix the intussusception so that your child will not immediately need surgery.” 3. “The enema will help confirm the diagnosis and has a good chance of fixing the intussusception.” 4. “The enema will help confirm the diagnosis and may temporarily fix the intussus- ception. If the bowel returns to normal, there is a strong likelihood that the intussusception will recur.”
3. In most cases of intussusception in young children, an enema is successful in reducing the intussusception.
The nurse is caring for a 5-year-old who has just returned from having an appendectomy. Which is the optimal way to manage pain? 1. Intravenous morphine as needed. 2. Liquid Tylenol (acetaminophen) with codeine as needed. 3. Morphine administered through a PCA pump. 4. Intramuscular morphine as needed.
3. Morphine administered through a PCA pump offers the child control over managing pain. The PCA pump also has the benefit of offering a basal rate as well as an as-needed rate for optimal pain management.
The nurse is caring for a 7-week-old scheduled for a pyloromyotomy in 24 hours. Which would the nurse expect to find in the plan of care? 1. Keep infant NPO; begin intravenous fluids at maintenance. 2. Keep infant NPO; begin intravenous fluids at maintenance; place nasogastric tube (NGT) to low wall suction. 3. Obtain serum electrolytes; keep infant NPO; do not attempt to pass NGT due to obstruction. 4. Offer infant small frequent feedings; keep NPO 6 to 8 hours before surgery.
2. In addition to giving fluids intravenously and keeping the infant NPO, an NGT is placed to decompress the stomach.
The nurse is caring for a 9-month-old with diarrhea secondary to rotavirus. The child has not vomited and is mildly dehydrated. Which is likely to be included in the discharge teaching? 1. Administer Imodium as needed. 2. Administer Kaopectate as needed. 3. Continue breastfeeding per routine. 4. The infant may return to day care 24 hours after antibiotics have been started.
3. Breastfeeding is usually well tolerated and helps prevent death of intestinal villi and malabsorption.
The nurse is caring for a neonate with an anorectal malformation. The nurse notes that the infant has not passed any stool per rectum but the infant’s urine contains meconium. The nurse can make which assumption? 1. The child likely has a low anorectal malformation. 2. The child likely has a high anorectal malformation. 3. The child will not need a colostomy. 4. This malformation will be corrected with a nonoperative rectal pull-through.
2. The presence of stool in the urine indicates that the anorectal mal - formation is high.
The nurse is caring for a newborn who has just been diagnosed with tracheo- esophageal fistula and is scheduled for surgery. Which should the nurse expect to do in the pre-operative period? 1. Keep the child in a monitored crib, obtain frequent vital signs, and allow the parents to visit but not hold their infant. 2. Administer intravenous fluids and antibiotics. 3. Place the infant on 100% oxygen via a non-rebreather mask. 4. Have the mother feed the infant slowly in a monitored area, stopping all feedings 4 to 6 hours before surgery.
2. Intravenous fluids are administered to prevent dehydration because the infant is NPO. Intravenous antibiotics are administered to prevent pneumonia because aspiration of secretions is likely.
The nurse is caring for a newborn with a cleft lip and palate. The mother states, “I will not be able to breastfeed my baby.” Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “It sounds like you are feeling discouraged. Would you like to talk about it?” 2. “Sometimes breastfeeding is still an option for babies with a cleft lip and palate. Would you like more information?” 3. “Although breastfeeding is not an option, you have the option of pumping your milk and then feeding it to your baby with a special nipple.” 4. “We usually discourage breastfeeding babies with cleft lip and palate as it puts them at an increased risk for aspiration.”
2. Some mothers are able to breastfeed their infants who have a cleft lip and palate. The breast can help fill in the cleft and help the infant create suction
The nurse is caring for a newborn with an anorectal malformation and a colostomy. The nurse knows that more education is needed when the infant’s parent states which of the following? 1. “I will make sure the stoma is red.” 2. “There should not be any discharge or irritation around the outside of the stoma.” 3. “I will keep a bag attached to avoid the contents of the small intestine coming in contact with the baby’s skin.” 4. “As my baby grows, a pattern will develop over time, and there should be predictable bowel movements.”
3. The colostomy contains stool from the large intestine; an ileostomy contains the very irritating stool from the small intestine.
The nurse is caring for a newborn with esophageal atresia. When reviewing the mother’s history, which would the nurse expect to find? 1. Maternal polyhydramnios. 2. Pregnancy lasting more than 38 weeks. 3. Poor nutrition during pregnancy. 4. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
1. Maternal polyhydramnios is present because the infant cannot swallow and absorb the amniotic fluid in utero.
The nurse is caring for an 8-week-old infant being evaluated for pyloric stenosis. Which statement by the parent would be typical for a child with this diagnosis? 1. “The baby is a very fussy eater and just does not want to eat.” 2. “The baby tends to have a very forceful vomiting episode about 30 minutes after most feedings.” 3. “The baby is always hungry after vomiting so I refeed.” 4. “The baby is happy in spite of getting really upset after spitting up.”
3. Infants with pyloric stenosis are always hungry and often appear malnourished.
The nurse is caring for an 8-week-old male who has just been diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease. The parents ask what they should expect. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “It is really an easy disease to manage. Most children are placed on stool softeners to help with constipation until it resolves.” 2. “A permanent stool diversion, called a colostomy, will be placed by the surgeon to bypass the narrowed area.” 3. “Daily bowel irrigations will help your child maintain regular bowel habits.” 4. “Although your child will require surgery, there are different ways to manage the disease, depending on how much bowel is involved.”
4. The aganglionic portion needs to be removed. Although most children have a temporary colostomy placed, many infants are able to bypass the colostomy and have the bowel immediately reattached.
The nurse is caring for an infant diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease. The mother states she is pregnant with a boy and wants to know if her new baby will likely have the disorder. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “Genetics play a small role in Hirschsprung disease, so there is a chance the baby will develop it as well.” 2. “There is no evidence to support a genetic link, so it is very unlikely the baby will also have it.” 3. “It is rarely seen in boys, so it is not likely your new baby will have Hirschsprung disease.” 4. “Hirschsprung disease is seen only in girls, so your new baby will not be at risk.”
1. There is a genetic component to Hirschsprung disease, so any future siblings are also at risk.
The nurse is caring for an infant newly diagnosed with Hirschsprung disease. What does the nurse understand about this infant’s condition? 1. There is a lack of peristalsis in the large intestine and an accumulation of bowel contents, leading to abdominal distention. 2. There is excessive peristalsis throughout the intestine, resulting in abdominal distention. 3. There is a small-bowel obstruction leading to ribbon-like stools. 4. There is inflammation throughout the large intestine, leading to accumulation of intestinal contents and abdominal distention.
1. In Hirschsprung disease, a portion of the large intestine has an area lacking in ganglion cells. This results in a lack of peristalsis as well as an accumulation of bowel contents and abdominal distention.