Flashcards in Davis Pediatrics Cardiovascular NCLEX Questions Deck (61)
A 10-year-old child is recovering from a severe sore throat. The parent states that the child complains of chest pain. The nurse observes that the child has swollen joints, nodules on the fingers, and a rash on the chest. The likely cause is _____________________.
Rheumatic fever or RF. To make the diagnosis of RF, major and minor criteria are used. Major criteria include carditis, subcutaneous nodules, erythema marginatum, chorea, and arthritis. Minor criteria include fever and previous history of RF.
A 10-year-old has undergone a cardiac catheterization. At the end of the procedure, the nurse should first assess: 1. Pain. 2. Pulses. 3. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. 4. Catheterization report.
2. Checking for pulses, especially in the canulated extremity, would assure perfusion to that extremity and is the priority post procedure.
A 16-year-old being treated for hypertension has laboratory values of hemoglobin B 16 g/dL, hematocrit level 43%, sodium 139 mEq/L, potassium 4.4 mEq/L, and total cholesterol of 220 mg/dL. Which drug does the nurse suspect the patient takes based on the total cholesterol? 1. Beta blockers. 2. Calcium channel blockers. 3. ACE inhibitors. 4. Diuretics.
1. Beta blockers are used with caution in patients with hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and impotence.
A 3-month-old has been diagnosed with a ventricular septal defect (VSD). The flow of blood through the heart is _____________________.
Left to right. The pressures in the left side of the heart are greater, causing the flow of blood to be from an area of higher pressure to lower pressure, or left to right, increasing the pulmonary blood flow with the extra blood
A 6-month-old who has episodes of cyanosis after crying could have the congenital heart defect (CHD) of decreased pulmonary blood flow called _____________________.
Tetralogy of Fallot or TOF.
A child born with Down syndrome should be evaluated for which associated cardiac manifestation? 1. Congenital heart defect (CHD). 2. Systemic hypertension. 3. Hyperlipidemia. 4. Cardiomyopathy.
1. CHD is found often in children with Down syndrome
A child diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF) is receiving maintenance doses of digoxin and furosemide. She is rubbing her eyes when she is looking at the lights in the room, and her HR is 70 beats per minute. The nurse expects which laboratory finding? 1. Hypokalemia. 2. Hypomagnesemia. 3. Hypocalcemia. 4. Hypophosphatemia.
1. The rubbing of the child's eyes may mean that she is seeing halos around the lights, indicating digoxin toxicity. The HR is slow for her age and also indicates digoxin toxicity. A decrease in serum potassium because of the furosemide can increase the risk for digoxin toxicity
A child has a Glasgow Coma Scale of 3, HR of 88 beats per minute and regular, respiratory rate of 22, BP of 78/52, and blood sugar of 35 mg/dL. The nurse asks the caregiver about accidental ingestion of which drug? 1. Calcium channel blocker. 2. Beta blocker. 3. ACE inhibiter. 4. ARB.
2. The beta blocker not only affects the heart and lungs but also blocks the beta sites in the liver, reducing the amount of glycogen available for use, causing hypoglycemia. The lower HR and BP also suggest ingestion of a cardiac medication.
A child has been diagnosed with valvular disease following rheumatic fever (RF). During patient teaching, the nurse discusses the child’s long-term prophylactic therapy with antibiotics for dental procedures, surgery, and childbirth. The parents indicate they understand when they say: 1. “She will need to take the antibiotics until she is 18 years old.” 2. “She will need to take the antibiotics for 5 years after the last attack.” 3. “She will need to take the antibiotics for 10 years after the last attack.” 4. “She will need to take the antibiotics for the rest of her life.”
4. Valvular involvement indicates significant damage, so antibiotics would be taken for the rest of her life.
A child has been seen by the school nurse for dizziness since the start of the school term. It happens when standing in line for recess and homeroom. The child now reports that she would rather sit and watch her friends play hopscotch because she cannot count out loud and jump at the same time. When the nurse asks her if her chest ever hurts, she says yes. Based on this history, the nurse suspects that she has: 1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD). 2. Aortic stenosis (AS). 3. Mitral valve prolapse. 4. Tricuspid atresia.
2. AS can progress, and the child can develop exercise intolerance that can be better when resting
A child who has reddened eyes with no discharge; red, swollen, and peeling palms and soles of the feet; dry, cracked lips; and a “strawberry tongue” most likely has _____________________.
Kawasaki disease or KD.
A heart transplant may be indicated for a child with severe heart failure and: 1. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). 2. Ventricular septal defect (VSD). 3. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome. 4. Pulmonic stenosis (PS).
3. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is treated by the Norwood procedure, or heart transplant.
A newborn is diagnosed with a congenital heart defect (CHD). The test results reveal that the lumen of the duct between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains open. This defect is known as _____________________.
Patent ductus arteriosus or PDA.
A nursing action that promotes ideal nutrition in an infant with congestive heart failure (CHF) is: 1. Feeding formula that is supplemented with additional calories. 2. Allowing the infant to nurse at each breast for 20 minutes. 3. Providing large feedings every 5 hours. 4. Using firm nipples with small openings to slow feedings.
1. Formula can be supplemented with extra calories, either from a commercial supplement, such as Polycose, or from corn syrup. Calories in formula could increase from 20 kcal/oz to 30 kcal/oz or more.
A toddler who has been hospitalized for vomiting due to gastroenteritis is sleeping and difficult to wake up. Assessment reveals vital signs of a regular HR of 220 beats per minute, respiratory rate of 30 per minute, BP of 84/52, and capillary refill of 3 seconds. Which dysrhythmia does the nurse suspect in this child? 1. Rapid pulmonary flutter. 2. Sinus bradycardia. 3. Rapid atrial fibrillation. 4. Supraventricular tachycardia.
4. SVT is often above 200 and a result of dehydration, which a vomiting child could have. The rapid rate causes a low CO, resulting in low BP and prolonged capillary refill.
An 18-month-old with a myelomeningocele is undergoing a cardiac catheterization. The mother expresses concern about the use of dye in the procedure. The child does not have any allergies. In addition to the concern for an iodine allergy, what other allergy should the nurse bring to the attention of the catheterization staff? 1. Soy. 2. Latex. 3. Penicillin. 4. Dairy.
2. Children with spina bifida (myelo - meningocele) often have a latex allergy. The catheter balloon is often made of latex, and all personnel caring for the patient should be made aware of the allergy.
Aspirin has been ordered for the child with rheumatic fever (RF) in order to: 1. Keep the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) open. 2. Reduce joint inflammation. 3. Decrease swelling of strawberry tongue. 4. Treat ventricular hypertrophy of endocarditis.
2. Joint inflammation is experienced in RF; aspirin therapy helps with inflammation and pain.
BP screenings to detect end-organ damage should be done routinely beginning at what age? 1. Birth. 2. 3 years. 3. 8 years. 4. 13 years.
2. Age 3 years is the recommended age to establish a baseline BP in a normal healthy child
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are classified by which of the following? Select all that apply. 1. Cyanotic defect. 2. Acyanotic defect. 3. Defects with increased pulmonary blood flow. 4. Defects with decreased pulmonary blood flow. 5. Mixed defects. 6. Obstructive defects. 7. Pansystolic murmurs.
3, 4, 5, 6. 3. Heart defects are now classified as defects with increased or decreased pulmonary blood flow. 4. Heart defects are now classified as defects with increased or decreased pulmonary blood flow. 5. Heart defects are now classified as defects with increased or decreased pulmonary blood flow. 6. Heart defects are now classified as defects with increased or decreased pulmonary blood flow.
During a well-child checkup for an infant with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the child develops severe respiratory distress and becomes cyanotic. The nurse’s first action should be to: 1. Lay the child flat to promote hemostasis. 2. Lay the child flat with legs elevated to increase blood flow to the heart. 3. Sit the child on the parent’s lap, with legs dangling, to promote venous pooling. 4. Hold the child in knee-chest position to decrease venous blood return.
4. The increase in the SVR would increase afterload and increase blood return to the pulmonary artery
During play, a toddler with a history of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) might assume which position? 1. Sitting. 2. Supine. 3. Squatting. 4. Standing.
3. The toddler will naturally assume this position to decrease preload by occluding venous flow from the lower extremities and increasing afterload. Increasing SVR in this position increases pulmonary blood flow
Exposure to which illness should be a cause to discontinue therapy and substitute dipyri- damole (Persantine) in a child receiving aspirin therapy for Kawasaki disease (KD)? 1. Chickenpox or influenza. 2. E. coli or staphylococcus. 3. Mumps or streptococcus A. 4. Streptococcus A or staphylococcus.
1. Both chickenpox and influenza are viral in nature, so consider stopping the aspirin because of
Family discharge teaching has been effective when the parent of a toddler diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD) states: 1. “The arthritis in her knees is permanent. She will need knee replacements.” 2. “I will give her diphenhydramine (Benadryl) for her peeling palms and soles of her feet.” 3. “I know she will be irritable for 2 months after her symptoms started.” 4. “I will continue with high doses of Tylenol for her inflammation.”
3. Children can be irritable for 2 months after the symptoms of the disease start.
For the child with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, which drug may be given to allow the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) to remain open until surgery? _____________________
Hypoxic spells in the infant with a congenital heart defect (CHD) can cause which of the following? Select all that apply. 1. Polycythemia. 2. Blood clots. 3. Cerebrovascular accident. 4. Developmental delays. 5. Viral pericarditis. 6. Brain damage. 7. Alkalosis.
1, 2, 3, 4, 6. 1. Hypoxia causes polycythemia, which can lead to increased blood viscosity, which can lead to blood clots and a stroke. 2. Hypoxia causes polycythemia, which can lead to increased blood viscosity, which can lead to blood clots and a stroke. 3. Hypoxia causes polycythemia, which can lead to increased blood viscosity, which can lead to blood clots and a stroke. 4. Developmental delays can be caused by multiple hospitalizations and surgeries. The child usually catches up to the appropriate level. 6. Brain damage can be caused by hypoxia, blood clots, and stroke.
In which congenital heart defect (CHD) would the nurse need to take upper and lower extremity BPs? 1. Transposition of the great vessels. 2. Aortic stenosis (AS). 3. Coarctation of the aorta (COA). 4. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
3. With COA there is narrowing of the aorta, which increases pressure proximal to the defect (upper extremities) and decreases pressure distal to the defect (lower extremities). There will be high BP and strong pulses in the upper extremities and lowerthan- expected BP and weak pulses in the lower extremities.
Indomethacin may be given to close which congenital heart defect (CHD) in newborns? _____________________
Patent ductus arteriosus or PDA.
On examination, a nurse hears a murmur at the left sternal border (LSB) in a child with diarrhea and fever. The parent asks why the pediatrician never said anything about the murmur. The nurse explains: 1. “The pediatrician is not a cardiologist.” 2. “Murmurs are difficult to detect, especially in children.” 3. “The fever increased the intensity of the murmur.” 4. “We need to refer the child to an interventional cardiologist.”
3. The increased CO of the fever increases the intensity of the murmur, making it easier to hear.
Patent ductus arteriosus causes what type of shunt? _____________________
Left to right. Blood flows from the higher pressure aorta to the lower pressure pulmonary artery, resulting in a left to right shunt