Flashcards in Davis Pediatrics Issues Related to Health NCLEX Questions Deck (61)
A 10-month-old is carried into the emergency department by her parents after she fell down 15 stairs in her walker. Which would be your highest priority nursing intervention? 1. Assess airway while simultaneously maintaining cervical spine precautions. 2. Assess airway, breathing, and circulation simultaneously. 3. Prepare for diagnostic radiological testing to check for any injuries. 4. Obtain venous access and draw blood for testing.
1. Priority nursing intervention with pediatric trauma patients is airway assessment while maintaining cervical spine precautions. If the airway is compromised, immediate corrective action should be taken prior to assessment of breathing.
A child with a newly applied left leg cast initially feels fine, then starts to cry and tells his mother his leg hurts. Which assessment would be the nurse’s first priority? 1. Cast integrity. 2. Neurovascular integrity. 3. Musculoskeletal integrity. 4. Soft-tissue integrity.
2. Neurovascular integrity should be assessed first and frequently because neurovascular compromise may cause serious consequences. Neurovascular integrity should be assessed using the 5 Ps: increased Pain out of proportion with injury, Pallor of extremity, Paresthesia, Pulselessness at distal part of extremity, and Paralysis post cast application.
After airway, breathing, and circulation have been assessed and stabilized, which intervention should the nurse implement for a child diagnosed with encephalitis? 1. Assist with a lumbar puncture, and give reassurance. 2. Obtain a throat culture, then begin antibiotics. 3. Perform initial and serial neurological assessments. 4. Administer antibiotics and antipyretics.
3. Initial and serial neurological assessments would be a priority nursing intervention in a child with a neurological problem. It is to monitor for changes in neurological status.
An 18-month-old is discharged from the hospital after having a febrile seizure secondary to exanthem subitum (roseola). On discharge, the mother asks the nurse if her 6-year-old twins will get sick. Which teaching about the transmission of roseola would be most accurate? 1. The child should be isolated in the home until the vesicles have dried. 2. The child does not need to be isolated from the older siblings. 3. Administer acetaminophen to the older siblings to prevent seizures. 4. Monitor older children for seizure development.
2. Roseola transmission is unknown and more commonly seen in children 6 months to 3 years of age, so siblings do not need to be isolated.
Expected nursing assessments of a newborn with suspected cystic fibrosis would include: 1. Observe frequency and nature of stools. 2. Provide chest physical therapy. 3. Observe for weight gain. 4. Assess parent’s compliance with fluid restrictions.
1. Cystic fibrosis is inherited as an autosomal-recessive trait, causing exocrine gland dysfunction. About 7% to 10% of newborns with cystic fibrosis present with meconium ileus, so assessing stool frequency and consistency is important.
The mother of a 3-week-old tells the nurse she is residing in a homeless shelter and is concerned about his mild cough, poor appetite, low-grade fever, weight loss, and fussiness over the last 2 weeks. Which nursing intervention would be the nurse’s highest priority? 1. Weigh the baby to have an accurate weight using standard precautions. 2. Reassure the mother that the baby may only have a cold, which can last a few weeks. 3. Immediately initiate droplet face-mask precautions, and isolate the infant. 4. Take a rectal temperature while completing the assessment using standard precautions.
3. Children with tuberculosis may have a history of living in a crowded home or could be homeless. Other symptoms may include a cough, cold symptoms, low-grade fever, irritability, poor appetite, and exposure to a person with tuberculosis. Initiation of droplet precautions and isolation of the infant would be warranted in this situation.
The mother of a 6-month-old states that since yesterday, the infant cries when anyone touches her arm. Which would be the priority assessment after the airway, breathing, and circulation had been assessed and found stable? 1. Ask the mother if she knows what happened. 2. Assess infant for other signs of potential physical abuse. 3. Prepare for radiological diagnostic studies. 4. Establish intravenous access, and draw blood for diagnostic testing.
1. The health-care provider’s highest priority should be to try to get the child’s history information from the parent.
The mother of a child diagnosed with erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). is crying, and says, “I am afraid. Will my unborn baby die? I have a planned cesarean section next week.” Which statement would be the most therapeutic response? 1. “Let me get the physician to come and talk with you.” 2. “I understand. I would be afraid, too.” 3. “Would you like me to call your obstetrician to have you seen as soon as possible?” 4. “I understand you are afraid. Can we can talk about your concerns?”
4. There is less risk of fetal death in the second half of the pregnancy. It is more therapeutic to acknowledge a client’s fears. After acknowledging her fears, the appropriate response would be to discuss concerns and clarify any misconceptions.
The parents of a 12-month-old with HIV are concerned about his receiving routine immunizations. What will the nurse tell them about immunizations? 1. “Your child will not receive routine immunizations today.” 2. “Your child will receive the recommended vaccines today 3. “Your child is not severely immunocompromised, but I would still be concerned about his receiving them.” 4. “Your child may develop infections if he gets his routine immunizations. Your child will not be immunized today.”
1. The nurse acknowledges a client’s fears and then discusses the concerns to clarify any misconceptions. Immunizations and influenza vaccine are recommended to prevent infection. Immunocompromised HIV-infected children should not receive the varicella and MMR live vaccines.
What is the most likely cause of a child’s illness if it is unexplained, prolonged, recurrent, and extremely rare, and usually occurs when the mother is present? 1. Genetic disorder. 2. Munchausen syndrome by proxy. 3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy. 4. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone.
2. Munchausen syndrome by proxy may be the cause of unexplained, prolonged, rare, recurrent illnesses. It usually occurs when the caregiver is present. TIPS - Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder characterized by muscle weakness usually appearing in the third year of life.
What would be the best plan of care for a newborn whose mother’s hepatitis B antigen status is unknown? 1. Give the infant the hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth. 2. Give the infant the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin within 12 hours of birth. 3. Give the infant the hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth. 4. Give the infant the hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin within 24 hours of birth.
Infants born to mothers of unknown hepatitis B antigen status should be given the hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccine within 12 hours of birth. If the mother is positive for hepatitis B antigen, then the baby should receive the hepatitis B immune globulin as soon as possible within 12 hours of birth. Timely administration of the hepatitis B vaccine is important to prevent passive acquisition of hepatitis B from the mother.
What would be the best response if the mother of a 10-year-old on kidney dialysis tells the nurse he has no appetite and only eats bananas? 1. “Right now his stomach is upset, and as long as he is eating something to give him strength, it is fine.” 2. “Let’s talk about your son and his diet.” 3. “Bananas are good to eat; they are rich in needed nutrients.” 4. “Did you try asking him what else he may want to eat?”
2. It would be most therapeutic to discuss with the mother and child the best foods to eat and to avoid on a renal diet. Bananas should be limited because of their high potassium content.
What would be the best response to a mother who tells the nurse that the only way she can get her 2-year-old to take medicine is to call it candy? 1. Tell her that is fine as long as the child takes all of the medicine. 2. Discuss the importance of not calling medicine candy to prevent accidental drug ingestion. 3. Discuss with the mother that the child does not have to take the medicine if she does not want it. 4. Tell the mother her child will have to go to “time-out” if she does not take her medicine.
2. Medications should never be called candy to prevent the accidental ingestion of medication by children who think it is candy.
What would be the most appropriate advice to give to the parent of a child with slight visual blurring after being hit in the face with a basketball? 1. “Apply ice, observe for any further eye complaints, and bring him back if he has increased pain.” 2. “Take him to the emergency department to ensure that he does not have any internal eye damage.” 3. “Call your pediatrician if he starts vomiting, is hard to wake up, or has worsening of eye blurring.” 4. “Observe for any further eye complaints, headaches, dizziness, or vomiting, and if worsening occurs, take him to your pediatrician.”
2. This type of eye injury is considered blunt force trauma to the eyes, and the child should be evaluated medically for assessment and prevention of eye damage. Slight blurring could indicate eye injuries, such as detached retina and hyphema, which need immediate medical intervention.
What would be the nurse’s best advice to a mother who says her 3-year-old ingested Visine eye solution? 1. “Initiate vomiting immediately.” 2. “Call the Poison Control Center.” 3. “Call the pediatrician right away.” 4. “Dilute with milk 1:1 volume of suspected ingestion.”
2. Calling Poison Control is the first step for ingestion of any known or unknown substance. Visine (topical sympathomimetic) can cause serious or fatal consequences if even a little is ingested.
What would be the nurse’s best response if the foster mother of a 15-month-old with an unknown immunization history comes to the clinic requesting immunizations? 1. “Your foster child will not receive any immunizations today.” 2. “Your foster child will receive the MMR, Hib, IPV, and hepatitis B vaccines.” 3. “Your foster child could have harmful effects if we revaccinate with prior vaccines.” 4. “Your foster child will receive only the Hib and DTaP vaccines today.”
4. Vaccines routinely due at 15 months include Hib and DTaP. To catch up missed immunizations the nurse would need the child’s immunization record to verify what he has received.
What would be the priority intervention when a 10-year-old comes to the nurse’s office because of a headache, and the nurse notices various stages of bruising on the inner aspects of the upper arms? 1. Call her mother and ask if acetaminophen can be given for the headache. 2. Ask the child what happened to her arms, and have her describe the headache. 3. Inquire about the child’s headache and bruising on her arms; file mandatory reporting forms. 4. Call her mother to pick her up from school, and complete required school nurse visit forms.
2. Her safety should be ensured first, then discuss physical complaints. School nurses are mandatory reporters of any suspected child abuse.
What would be the priority nursing action on finding the varicella vaccine at room temperature on the shelf in the medication room? 1. Ensure the varicella vaccine’s integrity is intact; if intact, follow the five rights of medication administration. 2. Do not administer this batch of vaccine. 3. Ensure the varicella vaccine’s integrity is intact; if intact, give the vaccine after verifying proper physician orders. 4. Ask the mother if the child has had any prior reactions to varicella.
4. This is the therapeutic response, discussing the mother’s concerns about the immunizations and local reactions.
When discharging a newborn, which injury prevention instruction would be of highest priority to tell the parents? 1. “Place safety locks on all medicine cabinets and household cleaning supplies.” 2. “Transport the infant in the front seat when driving alone so you can see the baby.” 3. “Never leave the baby unattended on a raised, unguarded area.” 4. “Place safety guards in front of any heating appliance, stove, fireplace, or radiator.”
3. The highest priority in newborn injury prevention is never to leave the baby unattended on a raised, unguarded surface. Involuntary reflexes may cause the infant to move and fall.
Which assessment is most important after any injury in a child? 1. History of loss of consciousness and length of time unconscious. 2. Serial assessments of level of consciousness. 3. Initial neurological assessment. 4. Initial vital signs and oxygen saturation level.
2. Serial assessments of level of consciousness are the most important observations of a child after any injury. That information tells you if the child’s condition is changing.
Which assessment of an 18-month-old with burns on his feet would cause suspicion of child abuse? 1. Splash marks on his right lower leg. 2. Burns noted on right arm. 3. Symmetrical burns on both feet. 4. Burns mainly noted on right foot.
3. Physical abuse has certain characteristics. Symmetrical burns on both feet indicate abuse.
Which clinical assessment of a neonate with bacterial meningitis would warrant immediate intervention? 1. Irritability. 2. Rectal temperature of 100.6°F (38.1°C). 3. Quieter than usual. 4. Respiratory rate of 24 breaths per minute.
4. A normal neonate’s respiratory rate is 30 to 60 breaths per minute. Neonates’ respiratory systems are immature, and the rate may initially double in response to illness. If no immediate interventions are begun when there is respiratory distress, a neonate’s respiratory rate will slow down, develop worsening respiratory distress, and, eventually, respiratory arrest. Neonates with slower or faster respiratory rates are true emergency cases; they require identification of the cause of distress.
Which families would be appropriate to refer for genetic counseling? 1. Parents with macrosomic infant. 2. Parents with neonatal abstinence syndrome infant. 3. Couple with a history of planned abortions. 4. Couple with a history of multiple miscarriages.
4. Couples with a history of multiple miscarriages, stillbirths, or infertility should be referred for genetic counseling to try to determine the cause of their problems with maintaining a pregnancy.
Which instruction would be of highest priority for the mother of an infant receiving his first oral rotavirus vaccine? 1. “Call the physician if he develops fever or cough.” 2. “Call the physician if he develops fever, redness, or swelling at the injection site.” 3. “Call the physician if he develops a bloody stool or diarrhea.” 4. “Call the physician if he develops constipation and irritability.”
3. There is a very small incidence of infants developing intussusception, signaled by the onset of bloody stool or diarrhea after receiving oral rotavirus vaccine.
Which intervention might the nurse anticipate in a 2-day-old infant diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease? 1. High-protein, high-amino-acid diet. 2. Low-protein, limited amino-acid diet. 3. Low-protein, low-sodium diet. 4. Phenylalanine-restricted diet.
2. A child with maple syrup urine disease will be on a low-protein, limited amino-acid diet for life. Patients need a diet high in thiamine.
Which intervention should the nurse implement for a newborn diagnosed with galactosemia? 1. Eliminate all milk and lactose-containing foods. 2. Encourage breastfeeding as long as possible. 3. Encourage lactose-containing formulas. 4. Avoid feeding soy-protein formula to the newborn.
1. Galactosemia is a rare autosomalrecessive disorder involving an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism. The hepatic enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase is absent, causing the failure of galactose to be converted into glucose. Glucose builds up in the bloodstream, which can result in liver failure, cataracts, and renal tubular problems. Treatment of galactosemia involves eliminating all milk and lactose-containing foods, including breast milk
Which intervention would be most appropriate for a 3-year-old who has just ingested dish detergent? 1. Discuss childproofing measures in the home in a nonthreatening manner. 2. Inquire about the circumstances of the ingestion. 3. Discuss having ipecac and the Poison Control phone number in the home. 4. Tell the mother you will be giving the boy medicine to make him throw up.
2. The most therapeutic approach is to inquire about the circumstances of the ingestion in a nonjudgmental manner. TIP - Ipecac is no longer recommended to be kept in the home because of the increasing number of medications where its use is contraindicated. All households should have the Poison Control number beside a telephone or on speed-dial.
Which is the most appropriate nursing intervention when caring for a child newly admitted with a mild head concussion and no cervical spine injury? 1. Keep head of bed flat, side rails up, and safety measures in place. 2. Elevate head of bed, side rails up, and safety measures in place. 3. Observe for drainage from any orifice and notify physician immediately. 4. Continually stimulate the child to keep awake to check neurological status.
2. The head of the bed should be elevated to decrease intracranial pressure. Side rails should be up to help ensure the child stays in bed, and age-appropriate safety measures should be instituted.
Which is the most appropriate teaching to the parents of a child in the emergency department after a near drowning if the child is awake, alert, and has no respiratory distress? 1. “Your child will most likely be discharged, and you should watch for any cough or trouble breathing.” 2. “Your child will need to have a preventive tube for breathing and ventilation to ensure the lungs are clear.” 3. “Your child will be fine but sometimes antibiotics are started as a preventive.” 4. “Your child will most likely be admitted for at least 24 hours and observed for respiratory distress or any swelling of the brain.”
4. Any child who has had a near-drowning experience should be admitted for observation. Even if a child does not appear to have any injury from the event, complications can occur within 24 hours after the event. Respiratory compromise and cerebral edema can be delayed complications.