Flashcards in Davis Pediatrics Neurologic NCLEX Questions Deck (61)
A 2-month-old infant is brought to the emergency room after experiencing a seizure. The infant appears lethargic with very irregular respirations and periods of apnea. The parents report the baby is no longer interested in feeding and before the seizure, rolled off the couch. What additional testing should the nurse immediately prepare for? 1. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head and dilation of the eyes. 2. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head and electroencephalogram (EEG). 3. X-rays of the head. 4. X-rays of all long bones.
1. A computed tomography scan of the head will reveal trauma. Dilating the eyes is performed to check for retinal hemorrhages that are seen in an infant who has experienced SBS.
A 6-month-old infant was just diagnosed with craniosynostosis. The infant’s father asks the nurse for more information about reconstructive surgery. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “The surgery is done for cosmetic reasons and is without many complications.” 2. “The surgery is important to allow the brain to grow properly. Although most children do well, serious complications can occur, so your child will be closely observed in the intensive care unit.” 3. “The surgery is important to allow the brain to grow properly. Most surgeons wait until the child is 3 years old to minimize potential complications.” 4. “The surgery is mainly done for cosmetic reasons, and most surgeons wait until the child is 3 years old as the head has finished growing at that time.”
2. The surgery is done to reconstruct the skull to allow the brain to grow properly. Because there are potential complications associated with this surgery, such as increased ICP, the child is usually closely observed in the PICU.
A 6-month-old male has been diagnosed with positional brachycephaly. The nurse is providing teaching about the use of a helmet for his therapy. Which statement indicates that the parents understand the education? 1. “We will keep the helmet on him when he is awake and remove it only for bathing and sleeping.” 2. “He will start wearing the helmet when he is closer to 9 months, as he will be more upright and mobile.” 3. “He will wear the helmet 23 hours every day.” 4. “Most children need to wear the helmet for 6 to 12 months.”
3. The helmet is worn 23 hours every day and removed only for bathing.
A child diagnosed with meningitis is having a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Which should the nurse do first? 1. Administer blow-by oxygen and call for additional help. 2. Reassure the parents that seizures are common in children with meningitis. 3. Call a code and ask the parents to leave the room. 4. Assess the child’s temperature and blood pressure.
1. The child experiencing a seizure usually requires more oxygen as the seizure increases the body’s metabolic rate and demand for oxygen. The seizure may also affect the child’s airway, causing the child to be hypoxic. It is always appropriate to give the child blow-by oxygen immediately. The nurse should remain with the child and call for additional help.
A child fell off his bike and sustained a closed-head injury. The child is currently awake and alert, but his mother states that he “passed out” for approximately 2 minutes. The mother appears highly anxious and is very tearful. The child was not wearing a helmet. Which is a priority for the triage nurse to say at this time? 1. “Was anyone else injured in the accident?” 2. “Tell me more about the accident.” 3. “Did he vomit, have a seizure, or display any other behavior that was unusual when he woke up?” 4. “Why was he not wearing a helmet?”
3. Asking specific questions will give the nurse the information needed to determine the level of care for the child.
A child has been diagnosed with a midline brain tumor. In addition to showing signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), she has been voiding large amounts of very dilute urine. Which medication does the nurse expect to administer? 1. Mannitol. 2. Vasopressin. 3. Lasix. 4. Dopamine.
2. The child is experiencing diabetes insipidus, a common occurrence in children with midline brain tumors. Vasopressin is a hormone that is used to help the body retain water.
A child in the PICU with a head injury is comatose and unresponsive. The parent asks if he needs pain medication. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “Pain medication is not necessary as he is unresponsive and cannot feel pain.” 2. “Pain medication may interfere with his ability to respond and may mask any signs of improvement.” 3. “Pain medication is necessary to make him comfortable.” 4. “Pain medication is necessary for comfort, but we use it cautiously as it increases the demand for oxygen.”
3. Pain medication promotes comfort and ultimately decreases ICP.
A child involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) is currently on a backboard with a cervical collar in place. The child is diagnosed with a cervical fracture. Which would the nurse expect to find in the child’s plan of care? 1. Remove the cervical collar, keep the backboard in place, and administer high-dose methylprednisolone. 2. Continue with all forms of spinal stabilization, and administer high-dose methylprednisolone and ranitidine. 3. Remove the backboard and cervical collar, and prepare for halo traction placement. 4. Remove the cervical collar and backboard, place the child on spinal precautions, and administer high-dose methylprednisolone and ranitidine.
2. All forms of spinal stabilization should be continued while methylprednisolone and ranitidine are administered.
A child is being admitted with the diagnosis of meningitis. Select the procedure the nurse should do first: 1. Administration of intravenous antibiotics. 2. Administration of maintenance intravenous fluids. 3. Placement of a Foley catheter. 4. Send the spinal fluid and blood samples to the laboratory for cultures.
4. Cultures of spinal fluid and blood should be obtained, followed by administration of intravenous antibiotics.
A child recently diagnosed with epilepsy is being evaluated for anticonvulsant medication therapy. The child will likely be placed on which type of regimen? 1. Two to three oral anticonvulsant medications so that dosing can be low and side effects minimized. 2. One oral anticonvulsant medication to observe effectiveness and minimize side effects. 3. One rectal gel to be administered in the event of a seizure. 4. A combination of oral and intravenous anticonvulsant medications to ensure compliance.
2. One medication is the preferred way to achieve seizure control. The child is monitored for side effects and drug levels.
A child with a seizure disorder has been having episodes during which she drops her pencil and simply appears to be daydreaming. This is most likely a/an: 1. Absence seizure. 2. Akinetic seizure. 3. Non-epileptic seizure. 4. Simple spasm seizure.
1. Absence seizures occur frequently and last less than 30 seconds. The child experiences a brief loss of consciousness during which she may have a change in activity. These children rarely fall, but they may drop an object. The condition is often confused with daydreaming.
A child with a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt complains of headache and blurry vision and now experiences irritability and sleeping more than usual. The parents ask the nurse what they should do. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “Give her some acetaminophen, and see if her symptoms improve. If they do not improve, bring her to the pediatrician’s office.” 2. “It is common for girls to have these symptoms, especially prior to beginning their menstrual cycle. Give her a few days, and see if she improves.” 3. “You are probably worried that she is having a problem with her shunt. This is very unlikely as it has been working well for 9 years.” 4. “You should immediately take her to the emergency room as these may be symptoms of a shunt malfunction.”
4. These are symptoms of a shunt malfunction and should be evaluated immediately.
A child with cerebral palsy (CP) has been fitted for braces and is beginning physical therapy to assist with ambulation. The parents ask why he needs the braces when he was crawling without any assistive devices. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “The CP has progressed, and he now needs more assistance to ambulate.” 2. “As your child grows, different muscle groups may need more assistance.” 3. “Most children with CP need braces to help with ambulation.” 4. “We have found that when children with CP use braces, they are less likely to fall.”
2. CP can manifest in different ways as the child grows. It does not progress, but its clinical manifestations may change
A child with Reye syndrome is described in the nurse’s notes as follows: 1200—comatose with sluggish pupils; when stimulated, demonstrates decerebrate posturing. 1400—unchanged except that now demonstrates decorticate posturing when stimulated. The nurse concludes that the child’s condition is: 1. Worsening and progressing to a more advanced stage of Reye syndrome. 2. Worsening, and the child may likely experience cardiac and respiratory failure. 3. Improving and progressing to a less advanced stage of Reye syndrome. 4. Improving as the child’s posturing reflexes are similar.
3. Progressing from decerebrate to decorticate posturing usually indicates an improvement in the child’s condition.
A parent of a newborn diagnosed with myelomeningocele asks what is a common long-term complication? The nurse’s best response is: 1. Learning disabilities. 2. Urinary tract infections. 3. Hydrocephalus. 4. Decubitus ulcers and skin breakdown.
2. Urinary tract infections are the most common complication of myelome - ningocele. Nearly all children with myelomeningocele have a neurogenic bladder that leads to incomplete emptying of the bladder and subsequent urinary tract infections. Frequent catheterization also increases the risk of urinary tract infection.
A preschooler has been having periods during which he suddenly falls and appears to be weak for a short time after the event. The preschool teacher asks what she should do. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “Have the parents follow up with his pediatrician as this is likely an atonic seizure.” 2. “Find out if there have been any new stressors in his life, as it could be attention-seeking behavior.” 3. “Have the parents follow up with his pediatrician as this is likely an absence seizure.” 4. “The preschool years are a time of rapid growth, and many children appear clumsy. It would be best to watch him, and see if it continues.”
1. An atonic seizure is characterized by a loss of muscular tone, whereby the child may fall to the ground.
An infant is born with a sac protruding through the spine, containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a portion of the meninges, and nerve roots. This condition is referred to as: 1. Meningocele. 2. Myelomeningocele. 3. Spina bifida occulta. 4. Anencephaly.
2. A myelomeningocele is a sac that contains a portion of the meninges, the CSF, and the nerve roots.
Brain damage in a child who sustained a closed-head injury can be caused by which factor? 1. Increased perfusion to the brain and increased metabolic needs of the brain. 2. Decreased perfusion to the brain and decreased metabolic needs of the brain. 3. Increased perfusion to the brain and decreased metabolic needs of the brain. 4. Decreased perfusion of the brain and increased metabolic needs of the brain.
4. Decreased perfusion of the brain and increased metabolic needs of the brain.
Select the best room assignment for a newly admitted child with bacterial meningitis. 1. Semiprivate room with a roommate who also has bacterial meningitis. 2. Semiprivate room with a roommate who has bacterial meningitis but has received intravenous antibiotics for more than 24 hours. 3. Private room that is dark and quiet with minimal stimulation. 4. Private room that is bright and colorful and has developmentally appropriate activities available.
3. A quiet private room with minimal stimulation is ideal as the child with meningitis should be in a quiet environment to avoid cerebral irritation.
The diet that produces anticonvulsant effects from ketosis consists of: 1. High-fat and low-carbohydrate foods. 2. High-fat and high-carbohydrate foods. 3. Low-fat and low-carbohydrate foods. 4. Low-fat and high-carbohydrate foods.
1. High fat and low carbohydrates are the components of the ketogenic diet.
The mother of an unconscious child has been calling her name repeatedly and gently shaking her shoulders in an attempt to wake her up. The nurse notes that the child is flexing her arms and wrists while bringing her arms closer to the midline of her body. The child’s mother asks, “What is going on?” Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “I think your daughter hears you, and she is attempting to reach out to you.” 2. “Your child is responding to you; please continue trying to stimulate her.” 3. “It appears that your child is having a seizure.” 4. “Your child is demonstrating a reflex that indicates she is overwhelmed with the stimulation she is receiving.”
4. Posturing is a reflex that often indicates that the child is receiving too much stimulation.
The nurse is aware that cloudy cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) most likely indicates: 1. Viral meningitis. 2. Bacterial meningitis. 3. No infection, as CSF is usually cloudy. 4. Sepsis.
2. The CSF in bacterial meningitis is usually cloudy.
The nurse is caring for a 1-year-old who has just been diagnosed with viral encephalitis. The parents ask if their child will be admitted to the hospital. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “Your child will likely be sent home because encephalitis is usually caused by a virus and not bacteria.” 2. “Your child will likely be admitted to the pediatric floor for intravenous antibiotics and observation.” 3. “Your child will likely be admitted to the PICU for close monitoring and observation.” 4. “Your child will likely be sent home because she is only 1 year old. We see fewer complications and a shorter disease process in the younger child.”
3. The young child with encephalitis should be admitted to a PICU where close observation and monitoring are available. The child should be observed for signs of increased ICP and for cardiac and respiratory compromise.
The nurse is caring for a 2-month-old infant who is at risk for cerebral palsy (CP) due to extreme low birth weight and prematurity. His parents ask why a speech therapist is involved in his care. Select the nurse’s best response. 1. “Your child is likely to have speech problems because of his early birth. Involving the speech therapist now will ensure vocalization at a developmentally appropriate age.” 2. “The speech therapist will help with tongue and jaw movements to assist with babbling.” 3. “The speech therapist will help with tongue and jaw movements to assist with feeding.” 4. “Many members of the health-care team are involved in your child’s care so that we will know if there are any unmet needs.”
3. It is important to involve speech therapy to strengthen tongue and jaw movements to assist with feeding. The infant who is at risk for CP may have weakened and uncoordinated tongue and jaw movements.
The nurse is caring for a 3-year-old with an altered state of consciousness. The nurse determines that the child is oriented by asking the child to: 1. Name the president of the United States. 2. Identify her parents and state her own name. 3. State her full name and phone number. 4. Identify the current month but not the date.
2. Asking the 3-year-old to identify her parents and state her name is a developmentally appropriate way to assess orientation.
The nurse is caring for a 6-month-old infant diagnosed with meningitis. When the child is placed in the supine position and flexes his neck, the nurse notes he flexes his knees and hips. This is referred to as: 1. Brudzinski sign. 2. Cushing triad. 3. Kernig sign. 4. Nuchal rigidity.
1. Brudzinski sign occurs when the child responds to a flexed neck with an involuntary flexion of the hips and/or knees.
The nurse is caring for a child receiving radiation therapy for a brain tumor. The parents ask if their child will likely have any learning disabilities. Select the nurse’s best answer. 1. “All children who receive radiation have some amount of learning disability. As long as they receive extra tutoring, they usually do well in school.” 2. “Because your child is so young, she will likely do well and have no problems in the future.” 3. “Response varies with each child, but younger children who receive radiation tend to have some amount of learning disability later in life.” 4. “Response varies with each child, but younger children who receive radiation tend to have fewer problems later in life than older children.”
3. Although variable, younger children tend to experience more learning difficulties than do older children.
The nurse is caring for a child who has been in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). The child falls asleep unless her name is called or she is gently shaken. This state of consciousness is referred to as: 1. Coma. 2. Delirium. 3. Obtunded. 4. Confusion.
3. Obtunded describes a state of consciousness in which the child has a limited response to the environment and can be aroused by verbal or tactile stimulation.
The nurse is caring for a child with a skull fracture who is unconscious and has severely increased intracranial pressure (ICP). The nurse notes the child’s temperature to be 104°F (40°C). Which should the nurse do first? 1. Place a cooling blanket on the child. 2. Administer Tylenol (acetaminophen) via nasogastric tube. 3. Administer Tylenol (acetaminophen) rectally. 4. Place ice packs in the child’s axillary areas.
1. A cooling blanket will help cool the child quickly and at a controlled temperature.