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Flashcards in Davis Pediatrics Respiratory Disorders NCLEX Questions Deck (62)
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1

A 2-year-old has just been diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF). The parents ask the nurse what early respiratory symptoms they should expect to see in their child. Which is the nurse’s best response?
1. “You can expect your child to develop a barrel-shaped chest.”
2. “You can expect your child to develop a chronic productive cough.”
3. “You can expect your child to develop bronchiectasis.” 4. “You can expect your child to develop wheezing respirations.”

4. Wheezing respirations and a dry, nonproductive cough are common early symptoms in CF.

2

A 3-year-old is brought to the ER with coughing and gagging. The parent reports that the child was eating carrots when she began to gag. Which diagnostic evaluation will be used to determine if the child has aspirated carrots?
1. Chest x-ray.
2. Bronchoscopy.
3. Arterial blood gas (ABG).
4. Sputum culture.

2. A bronchoscopy will allow the physician to visualize the airway and will help determine if the child aspirated the carrot.

3

A 5-year-old is brought to the ER with a temperature of 99.5°F (37.5°C), a barky cough, stridor, and hoarseness. Which nursing intervention should the nurse prepare for? 1. Immediate IV placement.
2. Respiratory treatment of racemic epinephrine.
3. A tracheostomy set at the bedside.
4. Informing the child’s parents about a tonsillectomy.

2. The child has stridor, indicating airway edema, which can be relieved by aerosolized racemic epinephrine.

4

A 6-week-old is admitted to the hospital with influenza. The child is crying, and the father tells the nurse that his son is hungry. The nurse explains that the baby is not to have anything by mouth. The parent does not understand why the child cannot eat. Which is the nurse’s best response to the parent?
1. “We are giving your child intravenous fluids, so there is no need for anything by mouth.”
2. “The shorter and narrower airway of infants increases their chances of aspiration so your child should not have anything to eat now.”
3. “When your child eats, he burns too many calories; we want to conserve the child’s energy.”
4. “Your child has too much nasal congestion; if we feed the child by mouth, the distress will likely increase.”

2. Infants are at higher risk of aspiration because their airways are shorter and narrower than those of adults. An infant with influenza has lots of nasal secretions and coughs up mucus. With all the secretions, the infant is at an even higher risk of aspiration.

5

A 7-month-old has a low-grade fever, nasal congestion, and a mild cough. What should the nursing care management of this child include? 1. Maintaining strict bedrest. 2. Avoiding contact with family members. 3. Instilling saline nose drops and bulb suctioning. 4. Keeping the head of the bed flat.

3. Infants are nose breathers and often have increased difficulty when they are congested. Nasal saline drops and gentle suctioning with a bulb syringe are often recommended

6

A child is complaining of throat pain. Which statement by the mother indicates that she needs more education regarding the care and treatment of her daughter’s pharyngitis? 1. “I will have my daughter gargle with salt water three times a day.” 2. “I will offer my daughter ice chips several times a day.” 3. “I will give my daughter Tylenol every 4 to 6 hours as needed.” 4. “I will ask the nurse practitioner for some amoxicillin.”

4. Pharyngitis is a self-limiting viral illness that does not require antibiotic therapy. Pharyngitis should be treated with rest and comfort measures, including Tylenol, throat sprays, cold liquids, and Popsicles.

7

A child with severe cerebral palsy is admitted to the hospital with aspiration pneumo- nia. What is the most beneficial educational information that the nurse can provide to the parents? 1. The signs and symptoms of aspiration pneumonia. 2. The treatment plan for aspiration pneumonia. 3. The risks associated with recurrent aspiration pneumonia. 4. The prevention of aspiration pneumonia.

4. The most valuable information the nurse can give the parents is how to prevent aspiration pneumonia from occurring in the future.

8

A child’s parent asks the nurse what treatment the child will need for the diagnosis of strep throat. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Your child will be sent home on bedrest and should recover in a few days without any intervention.” 2. “Your child will need to have the tonsils removed to prevent future strep infections.” 3. “Your child will need oral penicillin for 10 days and should feel better in a few days.” 4. “Your child will need to be admitted to the hospital for 5 days of intravenous antibiotics.”

3. The child will need a 10-day course of penicillin to treat the strep infection. It is essential that the nurse always tell the family that, although the child will feel better in a few days, the entire course of antibiotics must be completed.

9

A chloride level greater than _____________________ is a positive diagnostic indicator of cystic fibrosis (CF).

60 mEq/L. The definitive diagnosis of CF is made when a child has a sweat chloride level >60 mEq/L. A normal chloride level is <40 mEq/L.

10

A mother is crying and tells the nurse that she should have brought her son in yesterday when he said his throat was sore. Which is the nurse’s best response to this parent whose child is diagnosed with epiglottitis and is in severe distress and in need of intubation? 1. “Children this age rarely get epiglottitis; you should not blame yourself.” 2. “It is always better to have your child evaluated at the first sign of illness rather than wait until symptoms worsen.” 3. “Epiglottitis is slowly progressive, so early intervention may have decreased the extent of your son’s symptoms.” 4. “Epiglottitis is rapidly progressive; you could not have predicted his symptoms would worsen so quickly.”

4. Epiglottitis is rapidly progressive and cannot be predicted.

11

A parent asks how to care for a child at home who has the diagnosis of viral tonsillitis. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “You will need to give your child a prescribed antibiotic for 10 days.” 2. “You will need to schedule a follow-up appointment in 2 weeks.” 3. “You can give your child Tylenol every 4 to 6 hours as needed for pain.” 4. “You can place warm towels around your child’s neck for comfort.”

3. Tylenol is recommended PRN for pain relief.

12

A parent asks the nurse how it will be determined if their child has respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “We will do a simple blood test to determine whether your child has RSV.” 2. “There is no specific test for RSV. The diagnosis is made based on the child’s symptoms.” 3. “We will swab your child’s nose and send that specimen for testing.” 4. “We will have to send a viral culture to an outside lab for testing.”

3. The child is swabbed for nasal secretions. The secretions are tested to determine if a child has RSV.

13

A parent asks the nurse what will need to be done to relieve the constipation of her child who also has cystic fibrosis (CF). Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Your child likely has an obstruction and will require surgery.” 2. “Your child will likely be given IV fluids.” 3. “Your child will likely be given MiraLAX.” 4. “Your child will be placed on a clear liquid diet.”

3. CF patients with constipation commonly receive a stool softener or an osmotic solution such as polyethylene glycol 3350 (MiraLAX) orally to relieve their constipation.

14

A school-age child has been diagnosed with nasopharyngitis. The parent is concerned because the child has had little or no appetite for the last 24 hours. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Do not be concerned; it is common for children to have a decreased appetite during a respiratory illness.” 2. “Be sure your child is taking an adequate amount of fluids. The appetite should return soon.” 3. “Try offering the child some favorite food. Maybe that will improve the appetite.” 4. “You need to force your child to eat whatever you can; adequate nutrition is essential.”

2. It is common for children to have a decreased appetite when they have a respiratory illness. The nurse is appropriately instructing the parent that the child will be fine by taking in an adequate amount of fluid.

15

A school-age child has been diagnosed with strep throat. The parent asks the nurse when the child can return to school. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Forty-eight hours after the first documented normal temperature.” 2. “Twenty-four hours after the first dose of antibiotics.” 3. “Forty-eight hours after the first dose of antibiotics.” 4. “Twenty-four hours after the first documented normal temperature.”

2. Children with strep throat are no longer contagious 24 hours after initiation of antibiotic therapy.

16

A school-age child is admitted to the hospital for a tonsillectomy. During the nurse’s post-operative assessment, the child’s parent tells the nurse that the child is in pain. Which of the following observations would be of most concern to the nurse? 1. The child’s heart rate and blood pressure are elevated. 2. The child complains of having a sore throat. 3. The child is refusing to eat solid foods. 4. The child is swallowing excessively.

4. Excessive swallowing is a sign that the child is swallowing blood. This should be considered a medical emergency, and the physician should be contacted immediately. The child is likely bleeding and will need to return to surgery

17

An infant is not sleeping well, crying frequently, has yellow drainage from the ear, and is diagnosed with an ear infection. Which nursing objective is the priority for the family? 1. Educating the parents about signs and symptoms of an ear infection. 2. Providing emotional support for the parents. 3. Providing pain relief for the child. 4. Promoting the flow of drainage from the ear.

3. Providing pain relief for the infant is essential. With pain relief, the child will likely stop crying and rest better.

18

How does the nurse interpret the laboratory analysis of a stool sample containing excessive amounts of azotorrhea and steatorrhea in a child with cystic fibrosis (CF)? The values indicate the child is 1. Not compliant with taking her vitamins. 2. Not compliant with taking her enzymes. 3. Eating too many foods high in fat. 4. Eating too many foods high in fiber.

2. If the child were not taking enzymes, the result would be a large amount of undigested food, azotorrhea, and steatorrhea in the stool. Pancreatic ducts in CF patients become clogged with thick mucus that blocks the flow of digestive enzymes from the pancreas to the duodenum. Therefore, patients must take digestive enzymes with all meals and snacks to aid in absorption of nutrients. Often, teens are noncompliant with their medication regimen because they want to be like their peers. TIPS - Steatorrhea is an increased amount of fat in the stool. However, in CF patients, it is not a result of eating too many fatty foods.

19

How will a child with respiratory distress and stridor and who is diagnosed with RSV be treated? 1. Intravenous antibiotics. 2. Intravenous steroids. 3. Nebulized racemic epinephrine. 4. Alternating doses of Tylenol and Motrin.

3. Racemic epinephrine promotes mucosal vasoconstriction.

20

The nurse is reviewing discharge instructions with the parents of a child who had a tonsillectomy 24 hours ago. The parents tell the nurse that the child is a big eater, and they want to know what foods to give the child for the next 24 hours. What is the nurse’s best response? 1. “The child’s diet should not be restricted at all.” 2. “The child’s diet should be restricted to clear liquids.” 3. “The child’s diet should be restricted to ice cream and cold liquids.” 4. “The child’s diet should be restricted to soft foods.”

4. Soft foods are recommended to limit the child’s pain and to decrease the risk for bleeding.

21

The parent of a 4-month-old with cystic fibrosis (CF) asks the nurse what time to begin the child’s first chest physiotherapy (CPT) each day. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Thirty minutes before feeding the child breakfast.” 2. “After deep-suctioning the child each morning.” 3. “Thirty minutes after feeding the child breakfast.” 4. “Only when the child has congestion or coughing.”

1. CPT should be done in the morning prior to feeding to avoid the risk of the child vomiting

22

The parent of a 9-month-old calls the ER because his child is choking on a marble. The parent asks how to help his child while awaiting Emergency Medical Services. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “You should administer five abdominal thrusts followed by five back blows.” 2. “You should try to retrieve the object by inserting your finger in your child’s mouth.” 3. “You should perform the Heimlich maneuver.” 4. “You should administer five back blows followed by five chest thrusts.”

4. The current recommendation for infants younger than 1 year is to 72 PEDIATRIC SUCCESS administer five back blows followed by five chest thrusts.

23

The parent of a child with croup tells the nurse that her other child just had croup and it cleared up in a couple of days without intervention. She asks the nurse why this child is exhibiting worse symptoms and needs to be hospitalized. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Some children just react differently to viruses. It is best to treat each child as an individual.” 2. “Younger children have wider airways that make it easier for bacteria to enter and colonize.” 3. “Younger children have short and wide eustachian tubes, making them more susceptible to respiratory infections.” 4. “Children younger than 3 years usually exhibit worse symptoms because their immune systems are not as developed.”

4. Younger children have less developed immune systems and usually exhibit worse symptoms than older children

24

The parent of a child with cystic fibrosis (CF) is excited about the possibility of the child receiving a double lung transplant. What should the parent understand? 1. The transplant will cure the child of CF and allow the child to lead a long and healthy life. 2. The transplant will not cure the child of CF but will allow the child to have a longer life. 3. The transplant will help to reverse the multisystem damage that has been caused by CF. 4. The transplant will be the child’s only chance at surviving long enough to graduate college.

2. A lung transplant does not cure CF, but it does offer the patient an opportunity to live a longer life. The concerns are that, after the lung transplant, the child is at risk for rejection of the new organ and for development of secondary infections because of the immunosuppressive therapy.

25

The parent of a child with frequent ear infections asks the nurse if there is anything that can be done to help avoid future ear infections. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Your child should be put on a daily dose of Singulair (montelukast).” 2. “Your child should be kept away from tobacco smoke.” 3. “Your child should be kept away from other children with otitis media.” 4. “Your child should always wear a hat when outside.”

2. Tobacco smoke has been proved to increase the incidence of ear infections. The tobacco smoke damages mucociliary function, prolonging the CHAPTER 4 RESPIRATORY DISORDERS 67 inflammatory process and impeding drainage through the eustachian tube.

26

The parent of a child with influenza asks the nurse when the child is most infectious. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Twenty-four hours before and after the onset of symptoms.” 2. “Twenty-four hours after the onset of symptoms.” 3. “One week after the onset of symptoms.” 4. “One week before the onset of symptoms.”

1. Influenza is most contagious 24 hours before and 24 hours after onset of symptoms.

27

The parent of an infant with cystic fibrosis (CF) asks the nurse how to meet the child’s increased nutritional needs. Which is the nurse’s best suggestion? 1. “You may need to increase the number of fresh fruits and vegetables you give your child.” 2. “You may need to advance your child’s diet to whole cow’s milk because it is higher in fat than formula.” 3. “You may need to change your child to a higher-calorie formula.” 4. “You may need to increase your child’s carbohydrate intake.”

3. Often infants with CF need to have a higher-calorie formula to meet their nutritional needs. Infants may also be placed on hydrolysate formulas that contain medium-chain triglycerides.

28

The parents of a 5-week-old have just been told that their child has cystic fibrosis (CF). The mother had a sister who died of CF when she was 19 years of age. The parents are sad and ask the nurse about the current projected life expectancy. What is the nurse’s best response? 1. “The life expectancy for CF patients has improved significantly in recent years.” 2. “Your child might not follow the same course that the mother’s sister did.” 3. “The physician will come to speak to you about treatment options.” 4. The nurse answers their questions briefly, listens to their concerns, and is available later after they’ve processed the information.

4. The nurse’s best intervention is to let the parents express their concerns and fears. The nurse should be available if the parents have any other concerns or questions or if they just need someone with whom to talk.

29

The parents of a 6-year-old who has a new diagnosis of asthma ask the nurse what to do to make their home a more allergy-free environment. Which is the nurse’s best response? 1. “Use a humidifier in your child’s room.” 2. “Have your carpet cleaned chemically once a month.” 3. “Wash household pets weekly.” 4. “Avoid purchasing upholstered furniture.”

4. Leather furniture is recommended rather than upholstered furniture. Upholstered furniture can harbor large amounts of dust, whereas leather furniture may be wiped off regularly with a damp cloth.

30

What does the therapeutic management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients include? Select all that apply. 1. Providing a high-protein, high-calorie diet. 2. Providing a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. 3. Encouraging exercise. 4. Minimizing pulmonary complication. 5. Encouraging medication compliance.

1, 3, 4, 5. 1. Children with CF have difficulty absorbing nutrients because of the blockage of the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic enzymes cannot reach the duodenum to aid in digestion of food. These children often require up to 150% of the caloric intake of their peers. The nutritional recommendation for CF patients is high-calorie and high-protein. 3. Exercise is effective in helping CF patients clear secretions. 4. Minimizing pulmonary complications is essential to a better outcome for CF patients. Compliance with CPT, nebulizer treatments, and medications are all components of minimizing pulmonary complications. 5. Medication compliance is a necessary part of maintaining pulmonary and gastrointestinal function.