Flashcards in Deck 2 Deck (200):
Verify Scope definition:
The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables
Control Scope definition:
The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline
Define Activities definition:
The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables
Sequence Activities definition:
The process of identifying and documenting relationships among project activities RM: whatever needs to be done to create the network diagram
Estimate Activity Resources definition:
The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity
Estimate Activity Duration definition:
The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources
Develop Schedule definition:
The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule
Control Schedule definition:
The process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline
Estimate Costs definition:
The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities
Determine Budget definition:
The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline
Control Costs definition:
The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project budget and managing changes to the cost baseline
Plan Risk Management definition:
The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities
Identify Risks definition:
The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis definition:
The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis definition:
The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives
Plan Risk Responses definition:
The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives
Should the PM try and control communications?
Yes, otherwise changes, miscommunications, unclear definitions, and scope creep can occur
Stakeholder analysis can be defined as?
1. IDENTIFY all stakeholders, 2. ANALYZE their potential IMPACT and influence and how to manage that influence, 3. ASSESS how they are likely to respond in various situations
Stakeholder management throughout the project involves what?
1. Identify ALL of them, 2. Determine ALL their requirements, 3. Determine their expectations, 4. Determine their interests, 5. Determine level of influence, 6. Determine how to communicate with then, 7. Actually follow through and communicate with them, 8. manage their expectations and influence
Stakeholder Register can be defined as?
1. All info about Stakeholders is complied here, 2. Is the main Output of Identify Stakeholder process
Stakeholder: What are some of the ways to involve Stakeholders?
1. Determine their interest in being involved and when, 2. their influence on the project, 3. sign-off on final requirements, 4. use stakeholders as experts, 5. involve them in creating lessons learned, 6. ensure common understanding of work
Status Report can be defined as?
Describes where the project is now regarding the performance measurement baseline
Trend Report can be defined as?
Examines results over time to see if performance is improving or deteriorating
Variance Report can be defined as?
Compares actual to baselines
What percentage of time does a PM spend on communications?
Communication Classification Models come in four different types described in the PMBOK. What are they?
1. Power/Interest Grid, 2. Power/Influence Grid, 3. Influence/Impact Grid, 4. Salience Model
Stakeholder Register contains what information regarding SHs?
1. Identification info: name, org, position, etc., 2. Assessment info: major requirements, main expectations, potential influence, phase most interested in, 3. Stakeholder Classification: internal/external, supporter/neutral/resistor, etc.
Stakeholder Matrix is a common way to do what?
Express the SH management strategy
Communication Plan includes what pieces?
1. SH Communication requirements, 2. time frame and frequency, 3. person responsible for communications, 4. methods used, 5. flowcharts, 6. constraints, 7. etc.
Communication information distribution tools include?
1. Hard copy documents, manual filing systems, press releases, and databases, 2. Electronic Communication and conferencing tools such as email, fax, voice, etc, 3. Electronic Tools: went interfaces to scheduling and project mgmnt software, virtual meeting software, collaborative mgmnt tools
Manage Stakeholder expectations is defined as?
The process of communicating and working with SHs to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur.
Forecasting methods include what four categories?
1. Time series methods: use historical data to predict future results, 2. Causal / Econometric Methods: use the assumption that it is possible to identify the underlying factors that might influence the variable that is being forecasted; i.e. sales of umbrellas tied to weather, 3. Judgmental Methods: intuitive judgment, opinions, probability estimates, 4. Other methods: simulation, probabilistic forecasting, and ensemble forecasting
Can the PM control all communications?
Communication Blockers can be defined as?
Didn't find this in PMBOK version 4. May be a version 3 thing. Version 4 only mentioned generic "noise".1. Noisy surroundings, 2. distance, 3. improper coding, 4. negative statements, 5. hostility, 6. language, 7. culture
Communication can occur internally and externally. T or F
Communication dimension of Formal means?
1. Reports, 2. memos, 3. briefings
Communication dimension of Informal means?
1. emails, 2. ad hoc discussions
Communication has many dimensions of delivery or type. What are they?
1. Internal / External, 2. Formal / Informal, 3. Vertical / horizontal, 4. Official / Unofficial, 5. Written / Oral, 6. Verbal / Non-verbal
Communication Methods include three methodologies; what are they?
1. Interactive Communication, 2. Push Communication, 3. Pull Communication
Communications Channels can be calculated with what formula?
[N(N-1)]/2, where N = the number of people
Communications Management can be described as?
The processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information
Communications: What are the five steps of the communication model?
1. encode, 2. Message and feedback message, 3. Medium, 4. Noise, 5. Decode
Earned Value Report can be defined as?
Integrates scope, cost, and schedule measures to assess performance
Forecasting Report can be defined as?
Predicts future status and performance
Formal verbal communications can be defined as?
Formal written communications can be defined as?
Complex problems, PM plans, project charter, memos, communicating over long distances
Informal verbal communications can be defined as?
Informal written communications can be defined as?
E-mail, handwritten notes
Interactive Communication can be defined as?
1. This method is reciprocal and can involve just two people or many, 2. One person provides information and others receive and respond to it, 3. Examples include:, A. conversation, B. meetings, C. Conference calls
Meetings have what rules?
1. Set a time limit and keep to it, 2. Schedule reoccurring meetings in advance, 3. Meet with team regularly but not too often, 4. have a purpose for each meeting, 5. create an agenda with team input, 6. distribute the agenda before hand, 7. let people know their responsibilities in advance, 8. chair and lead with a set of rules, 9. bring the right people together, 10. document and publish meeting minutes
Nonverbal Communication can be defined as?
55% of all communication is nonverbal; based on physical mannerisms
Paralingual can be defined as?
Pitch and tone of voice
Plan Communications can be defined as?
1. Is the process of determining the SH information needs and defining the communications approach, 2. Responding to the information and communication needs of the SHs
Progress Report can be defined as?
What has been accomplished
Pull Communication can be defined as?
1. This method involves the PM placing the information in a central location, 2. Recipients responsible for pulling the information, 3. Used to send large documents or to send info to many people
Push Communication can be defined as?
1. This method involves a one-way stream of information, 2. Sender provides info but does not expect a response, 3. Examples include:, A. status reports, B. emailed updates, C. company memos
Report Performance can be defined as?
1. A Communications process, 2. collects work info, analyzes it, and sends it to stakeholders
Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for CPFF is?
Cost, Time, Performance
Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for CPAF is?
Cost, Time, Performance
Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for CPIF is?
Time, Performance, Cost
Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for TM is?
Performance, Time, Cost
Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for FPIF is?
Time, Performance, Cost
Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for FP is?
Cost, Time, Performance
What type of contract? You need work to begin right away
Time and Materials
What type of contract? You want to buy expertise in determining what needs to be done
What type of contract should you use when you know exactly what needs to be done.
FP (fixed price)
What type of contract? You are buying a programmers services to augment your staff
T and Materials
What type of contract? You need work done, but have time to audit the invoices
What type of contract? You need to rebuild a bridge ASAP after a storm
What type of contract? The project requires a high level of expertise to complete, and you want to have the best performance possible in a finished product
CPIF or CPAF
What type of contract? You need to hire a contractor to perform research and development
What type of contract? The scope of work is complete, but the economy is currently unpredictable
What type of contract? You are buying a standard commodities
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: Generally, what is being bought?
Cost Reimbursable: Service, goods may be included Time and Material: Service Fixed Price: Goods
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: Describe how the costs to the buyer might be stated in the contract
Cost Reimbursable: Costs are variable, but the fee is fixed Time and Material: Hourly rate or price per unit Fixed Price: As a set currency amount
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: Describe how the profit to the buyer might be stated in the contract
Cost Reimbursable: Listed separately and known to the buyer Time and Material: Included in the hourly rate and may be unknown to the buyer Fixed Price: Included in the price and unknown to the buyer
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: What is the cost risk to the buyer? (High, Medium, or Low)
Cost Reimbursable: High - Increases in costs are reimbursed by the buyer Time and Material: Medium - the costs are not fixed, this contract type is used for small purchases Fixed Price: Low - increases in cost are born by the seller
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: How important is a detailed SOW?
Cost Reimbursable: Low - the procurement SOW only needs to describe the performance or requirements since the seller provides the work. The buyer pays all costs, so there is less need to finalize the scope Time and Material: Low - this type traditionally has very little scope and may only describe skill sets required Fixed Price: High - the procurement SOW must be complete so the seller knows exactly what work needs to be done in order to come up with an accurate price to do the work
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: What industry uses this most for its contracts?
Cost Reimbursable: IT, research, development - when the work has never been done before Time and Material: legal, plumbing, programming - when hiring for an hourly rate Fixed Price: construction - complete scope of work is needed
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: How much negotiation is usually required to sign a contract after receipt of the seller's price? (High, Medium, or Low)
Cost Reimbursable: High - all estimated costs are looked at to calculate the fee to be fixed Time and Material: Low or none Fixed Price: None
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: What level of effort and expertise will the buyer need to devote to managing the seller? (High, Medium, or Low)
Cost Reimbursable: High Time and Material: Medium Fixed Price: Low
Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: How are costs billed to the buyer?
Cost Reimbursable: Actual costs are incurred, profit at completion or apportioned, as allowed in the contract Time and Material: Hourly or per unit rate (which includes all costs and profit) Fixed Price: Fixed price (which includes profit) according to a payment schedule as work is competed and as allowed in the contract
What Comes Before: Create Network Diagram
Create Activity list
What Comes Before: Prepare procurement documents
Go back - iterations
What Comes Before: Create Project Scope Statement
What Comes Before: Create WBS and WBS dictionary
What Comes Before: Determine Critical path
Estimate time and cost
What Comes Before: Develop budget
What Comes Before: Hold kickoff meeting
Gain formal approval of the plan
What Comes Before: Determine quality standards, processes, and metrics
What Comes Before: Determine what to purchase
Create project scope statement
What Comes Before: Plan communications
Determine all roles and responsibilities
What Comes Before: Go back - iterations
Perform risk identification, qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, and risk response planning
What Comes Before: Create process improvement plan
Determine quality standards, processes, and metrics
What is a process improvement plan?
The process improvement plan details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities which enhance their value.
What Comes Before: Perform risk identification, qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, and risk response planning
What Comes Before: Estimate resource requirements
Create Network Diagram
What Comes Before: Create activity list
Create WBS and WBS dictionary
What are the inputs to the Collect Requirements process?
1) Project charter2) Stakeholder register
What Comes Before: Define Scope
What Comes Before: Create WBS
What Comes Before: Verify Scope
What Comes Before: Control Scope
What Comes Before: Develop Project Charter
What Comes Before: Develop Project Management Plan
Develop Project Charter
What Comes Before: Monitor and Control Project Work
Direct and Manage Project Execution
What Comes Before: Perform Integrated Change Control
Monitor and Control Project Work
What Comes Before: Define Activities
What Comes Before: Sequence Activities
What Comes Before: Estimate Activity Resources
What Comes Before: Estimate Activty Durations
Estimate Activity Resources
What Comes Before: Develop Schedule
Estimate Activty Durations
What Comes Before: Control Schedule
What Comes Before: Estimate Costs
What Comes Before: Determine Budget
What Comes Before: Control Costs
What Comes Before: Plan Quality
What Comes Before: Perform Quality Assurance
What Comes Before: Perform Quality Control
Perform Quality Assurance
What Comes Before: Develop Human Resource Plan
What Comes Before: Acquire Project Team
Develop Human Resource Plan
What Comes Before: Develop Project Team
Acquire Project Team
What Comes Before: Manage Project Team
Develop Project Team
What Comes Before: Identify Stakeholders
What Comes Before: Plan Communications
What Comes Before: Distribute Information
What Comes Before: Manage Stakeholder Expectations
What Comes Before: Report Performance
Manage Stakeholder Expectations
What Comes Before: Plan Risk Management
What Comes Before: Identify Risks
Plan Risk Management
What Comes Before: Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
What Comes Before: Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
What Comes Before: Plan Risk Responses
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
What Comes Before: Plan Procurements
What Comes Before: Conduct Procurement
What Comes Before: Administer Procurements
What Comes Before: Close Procurement
+/- 2 sigma equals?
+/- 3 sigma equals?
+/- 6 sigma equals?
100.00%Note: not sure what this question means.
Change Control Board does what in regards to quality?
Evaluates all change requests (in Perform Integrated Change Control)
Control chart: Aside from quality, what else can a control chart help monitor?
Project performance figures; cost / schedule variances
Control Charts are described as?
1. Set up in the Plan Quality process as part of the effort to determine quality on the project 2. Utilized to Perform Quality Control where they help determine if a process is within acceptable limits 3. Display upper/lower specification limit lines 4. Display upper/lower control limit lines 5. Display planned/goal value lines
Control Charts are most commonly used for?
Monitor production and other processes to see if they are within acceptable limits
Could quality standards be processes?
Flowcharting can be described as?
1. Graphical representation of a process showing the relationships among process steps 2. Show activities 3. show decision points 4. show order of processing
Flowcharting is used how in the Plan Quality process?
Used to 'see' a process and find potential issues.
Flowcharting is used how in the Quality Control process?
Used to analyze quality problems.
Histogram is described as?
1. Displays data as bars or columns 2. Shows what problems are worth dealing with 3. Data in no particular order
If situation is looking back in time at processes?
3. most likely quality assurance
If situation is looking back in time at project results?
2. most likely quality control
Kaizen can be described as?
Continuous improvement; - Always looking for small improvements; - AKA Continuous improvement
New quality standards can violate other relevant standards.
Once existing standards are identified, what are the next steps for the PM?
To create additional standards needed by the project that are not covered by any other standard.
Pareto Chart is described as?
1. Type of histogram 2. arranges results from most frequent to least frequent to help identify which root causes are causing problems 3. Associated with the 80/20 rule
Pareto Charts help you do three things:
1. Help focus on the most critical answers 2. Prioritize potential causes of the problems 3. Separate the critical few from the uncritical many
Perform QC has what outputs?
1. Measurements 2. Validate changes 3. PM Plan and project docs updates 4. Change requests including corrective and preventative actions and defect repair 5. Lessons Learned 6. Validated deliverables
Perform Quality Assurance inputs are...?
1. PMP Plan ( Quality Mgmnt Plan and Process Improvement Plan) 2. Quality Metrics 3. Work Performance Info (tech performance measures, deliverable status, schedule progress) 4. Quality Control measurements
Perform Quality Assurance focuses on what?
1. Use measurements from Quality Control 2. Perform continuous improvement 3. Determine is activities are company compliant - quality audit 4. Find good practices 5. Share good practices with others in Co.
Perform Quality Assurance outputs are...?
1. Change requests 2. OPA Updates 3. PMP plan updates 4. Project document updates
Perform Quality Assurance PMBOK can be described as...?
Process of AUDITING the quality requirements and the results from Quality Control measurements to ENSURE appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.
Perform Quality Assurance Tools and Techniques are...?
1. Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control tools techniques 2. Quality audits 3. Process analysis
Perform Quality Control inputs are...?
1. PMP Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Quality checklists 4. Work performance measurements 5. Approved change requests 6. Deliverables 7. OPA
Perform Quality Control outputs are...?
1. Quality Control Measurements 2. Validated changes 3. Validated deliverables 4. OPA Updates (completed checklists, lessons learned) 5. Change requests 6. PMP Updates (QMP and PIP) 7. Project document updates
Perform Quality Control PMBOK can be described as...?
Process of MONITORING and RECORDING results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes
Perform Quality Control Tools and Techniques are...?
1. Control Charts 2. Statistical Sampling 3. Flowcharting 4. Checklists 5. Cause and effect diagrams 6. Histograms 7. Pareto charts 8. Run charts 9. Scatter Diagrams 10. Approved change requests review
Plan Quality focuses on what?
1. Find existing quality standards for product and project management 2. create additional project-specific standards 3. determine what work to do to meet these standards 4. how will you measure 5. how will you balance quality with scope, cost, time, risk, resources, and customer satisfaction 6. create quality management plan
Plan Quality PMBOK can be described as?
The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance
Plan Quality Process determines what?
What work will need to be done to meet the quality standards
Plan Quality Process inputs are?
1. Scope baseline (scope stmnt, WBS, WBS Dict.) 2. Stakeholder register 3. Cost performance baseline 4. Schedule baseline 5. Risk register 6. Enterprise environmental factors7 Organizational process assets
Plan Quality Process outputs are?
1. Quality Mgmnt Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Quality Checklists 4. Process improvement Plan 5. Project Document Updates
Plan Quality Tools and Techniques are...?
1. Cost benefit analysis Control Charts 2. Cost of quality 3. Control charts 4. Benchmarking 5. Design of experiments 6. Statistical Sampling 7. Flowcharting 8. Proprietary quality mgmnt methodologies 9. Additional quality planning tools
Poor quality has what impact?
1. Increased costs 2. low morale 3. low customer satisfaction 4. increased risk 5. rework 6. schedule delays
Precision and Accuracy are not equivalent. Describe the differences.
Precision: means the values of repeated measurements are clustered and have little scatter Accuracy: means the measured value is very close to the true value
Process Analysis is described as...?
1. Planned in at certain points in a project (after every 10th installation), 2. part of continuous improvement
Process Improvement Plan can be described as?
1. PM must improve current project processes 2. part of the project management plan 3. helps save time by increasing efficiency and preventing problems 4. Saves money and 5. increases customer satisfaction
Project Quality Mgmnt PMBOK addresses what?
1. The management of the PROJECT and the PRODUCT of the project 2. Applies to all project regardless of product 3. Product quality measures and techniques are specific to the product
Quality and Grade are not the same. Describe the differences.
Quality: the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements; Grade: is a category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics
Quality Assurance Department does what in regards to quality?
1. Periodically audits work 2. looks for best practices 3. looks to improve processes
Quality can be assured on a project by focusing on what specific actions?
1. Review project charter and scope 2. understand the customers definition of quality 3. desired level of performance of product has been identified 4. Set standards to reach quality goals 5. Make sure team members understand quality minimums 6. inspect work as it's being done not when completed 7. Measure performance against standards 8. perform QA and QC 9. perform quality reviews 10. make sure processes are followed
Quality Checklist can be described as?
A list of items to inspect, a list of steps to perform, or a picture of the item to be inspected with room to document differences
Quality Control Department does what in regards to quality?
Measure the performance of the project by looking at the quality of the deliverables
Quality Management inputs are?
1. Plan Quality 2. Perform QA 3. Perform QC
Quality Management Plans include what?
1. The quality practices and standards for the project 2. Who will manage quality 3. Review of earlier decisions to ensure they are sill correct 4. Meetings / Reports that will address quality 5. What metrics will be used to measure quality 6. What parts of the project will be measured
Quality Management results in what?
1. Project is completed 2. Quality targets are reached 3. Customer is happy 4. Org has improved processes
Quality metric can be described as?
An operational definition that describes, in specific terms, a product attribute and how the quality control process will measure it
Quality Metric examples are...?
1. on-time performance 2. budget control 3. defect frequency 4. The variance in weight 5. The number of bugs found 6. failure rate
Quality Mgmnt and Project Mgmnt compliment each other by recognizing the importance of what?
1. Customer Satisfaction; 2. Prevention over inspection 3. Continuous improvement 4. Management Responsibility
Quality must be balanced with what?
The other project constraints
Quality requirements are clarified by the...?
The project team
Quality requirements are determined by the...?
Quality requirements: Who determines the existing standards, policies, plans and procedures to meet the quality requirements?
Quality-Related PMI-isms relating to quality can be summed up with the following eight items?
1. The PM recommends improvements to standards, policies, and processes 2. Quality should be considered whenever there is a change 3. Quality should be checked before an activity or work package is completed 4. PM must spend time improving quality 5. PM must determine metrics to measure quality before the project begins 6. PM must put in place a plan to continually improve quality 7. PM must ensure authorized quality processes are followed 8. Some quality activities may be done by the QA / QC departments
Run Chart is described as?
1. Used to control quality by allowing you to look at history to see if there is a pattern. 2. Shows the history and pattern of variation 3. A line graph with data points in order in which they occur 4. Trend analysis uses run charts
Scatter Diagram is described as?
Tracks two variables to see if they are related
Seven Basic Tools of quality also known as?
Ishikawa's seven basic tools of quality
Statistical Sampling can be described as?
1. Take a sample of the total population and check for defects 2. Use when inspecting each products would: A. Take to long B. Cost too much C. Be to destructive
What are some examples of how the Plan Quality Process will result in changes or additions to the Project Management Plan and other various project documents?
1. Work can be added to the WBS 2. resources can be changed 3. various changes to the Project Management Plan
What are the two circumstances of when a project is out of control?
1. A data point falls outside the upper/lower control limit 2. There are non-random data points (such as rule of seven)