Deck 2 Flashcards Preview

PMP > Deck 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Deck 2 Deck (200):

Verify Scope definition:

The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables


Control Scope definition:

The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline


Define Activities definition:

The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables


Sequence Activities definition:

The process of identifying and documenting relationships among project activities RM: whatever needs to be done to create the network diagram


Estimate Activity Resources definition:

The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity


Estimate Activity Duration definition:

The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources


Develop Schedule definition:

The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule


Control Schedule definition:

The process of monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline


Estimate Costs definition:

The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities


Determine Budget definition:

The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline


Control Costs definition:

The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project budget and managing changes to the cost baseline


Plan Risk Management definition:

The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities


Identify Risks definition:

The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics


Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis definition:

The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact


Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis definition:

The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives


Plan Risk Responses definition:

The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives


Should the PM try and control communications?

Yes, otherwise changes, miscommunications, unclear definitions, and scope creep can occur


Stakeholder analysis can be defined as?

1. IDENTIFY all stakeholders, 2. ANALYZE their potential IMPACT and influence and how to manage that influence, 3. ASSESS how they are likely to respond in various situations


Stakeholder management throughout the project involves what?

1. Identify ALL of them, 2. Determine ALL their requirements, 3. Determine their expectations, 4. Determine their interests, 5. Determine level of influence, 6. Determine how to communicate with then, 7. Actually follow through and communicate with them, 8. manage their expectations and influence


Stakeholder Register can be defined as?

1. All info about Stakeholders is complied here, 2. Is the main Output of Identify Stakeholder process


Stakeholder: What are some of the ways to involve Stakeholders?

1. Determine their interest in being involved and when, 2. their influence on the project, 3. sign-off on final requirements, 4. use stakeholders as experts, 5. involve them in creating lessons learned, 6. ensure common understanding of work


Status Report can be defined as?

Describes where the project is now regarding the performance measurement baseline


Trend Report can be defined as?

Examines results over time to see if performance is improving or deteriorating


Variance Report can be defined as?

Compares actual to baselines


What percentage of time does a PM spend on communications?



Communication Classification Models come in four different types described in the PMBOK. What are they?

1. Power/Interest Grid, 2. Power/Influence Grid, 3. Influence/Impact Grid, 4. Salience Model


Stakeholder Register contains what information regarding SHs?

1. Identification info: name, org, position, etc., 2. Assessment info: major requirements, main expectations, potential influence, phase most interested in, 3. Stakeholder Classification: internal/external, supporter/neutral/resistor, etc.


Stakeholder Matrix is a common way to do what?

Express the SH management strategy


Communication Plan includes what pieces?

1. SH Communication requirements, 2. time frame and frequency, 3. person responsible for communications, 4. methods used, 5. flowcharts, 6. constraints, 7. etc.


Communication information distribution tools include?

1. Hard copy documents, manual filing systems, press releases, and databases, 2. Electronic Communication and conferencing tools such as email, fax, voice, etc, 3. Electronic Tools: went interfaces to scheduling and project mgmnt software, virtual meeting software, collaborative mgmnt tools


Manage Stakeholder expectations is defined as?

The process of communicating and working with SHs to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur.


Forecasting methods include what four categories?

1. Time series methods: use historical data to predict future results, 2. Causal / Econometric Methods: use the assumption that it is possible to identify the underlying factors that might influence the variable that is being forecasted; i.e. sales of umbrellas tied to weather, 3. Judgmental Methods: intuitive judgment, opinions, probability estimates, 4. Other methods: simulation, probabilistic forecasting, and ensemble forecasting


Can the PM control all communications?



Communication Blockers can be defined as?

Didn't find this in PMBOK version 4. May be a version 3 thing. Version 4 only mentioned generic "noise".1. Noisy surroundings, 2. distance, 3. improper coding, 4. negative statements, 5. hostility, 6. language, 7. culture


Communication can occur internally and externally. T or F



Communication dimension of Formal means?

1. Reports, 2. memos, 3. briefings


Communication dimension of Informal means?

1. emails, 2. ad hoc discussions


Communication has many dimensions of delivery or type. What are they?

1. Internal / External, 2. Formal / Informal, 3. Vertical / horizontal, 4. Official / Unofficial, 5. Written / Oral, 6. Verbal / Non-verbal


Communication Methods include three methodologies; what are they?

1. Interactive Communication, 2. Push Communication, 3. Pull Communication


Communications Channels can be calculated with what formula?

[N(N-1)]/2, where N = the number of people


Communications Management can be described as?

The processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information


Communications: What are the five steps of the communication model?

1. encode, 2. Message and feedback message, 3. Medium, 4. Noise, 5. Decode


Earned Value Report can be defined as?

Integrates scope, cost, and schedule measures to assess performance


Forecasting Report can be defined as?

Predicts future status and performance


Formal verbal communications can be defined as?

Presentations, speeches


Formal written communications can be defined as?

Complex problems, PM plans, project charter, memos, communicating over long distances


Informal verbal communications can be defined as?

Meetings, conversations


Informal written communications can be defined as?

E-mail, handwritten notes


Interactive Communication can be defined as?

1. This method is reciprocal and can involve just two people or many, 2. One person provides information and others receive and respond to it, 3. Examples include:, A. conversation, B. meetings, C. Conference calls


Meetings have what rules?

1. Set a time limit and keep to it, 2. Schedule reoccurring meetings in advance, 3. Meet with team regularly but not too often, 4. have a purpose for each meeting, 5. create an agenda with team input, 6. distribute the agenda before hand, 7. let people know their responsibilities in advance, 8. chair and lead with a set of rules, 9. bring the right people together, 10. document and publish meeting minutes


Nonverbal Communication can be defined as?

55% of all communication is nonverbal; based on physical mannerisms


Paralingual can be defined as?

Pitch and tone of voice


Plan Communications can be defined as?

1. Is the process of determining the SH information needs and defining the communications approach, 2. Responding to the information and communication needs of the SHs


Progress Report can be defined as?

What has been accomplished


Pull Communication can be defined as?

1. This method involves the PM placing the information in a central location, 2. Recipients responsible for pulling the information, 3. Used to send large documents or to send info to many people


Push Communication can be defined as?

1. This method involves a one-way stream of information, 2. Sender provides info but does not expect a response, 3. Examples include:, A. status reports, B. emailed updates, C. company memos


Report Performance can be defined as?

1. A Communications process, 2. collects work info, analyzes it, and sends it to stakeholders


Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for CPFF is?

Cost, Time, Performance


Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for CPAF is?

Cost, Time, Performance


Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for CPIF is?

Time, Performance, Cost


Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for TM is?

Performance, Time, Cost


Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for FPIF is?

Time, Performance, Cost


Priority order of Cost, Time, and Performance for FP is?

Cost, Time, Performance


What type of contract? You need work to begin right away

Time and Materials


What type of contract? You want to buy expertise in determining what needs to be done



What type of contract should you use when you know exactly what needs to be done.

FP (fixed price)


What type of contract? You are buying a programmers services to augment your staff

T and Materials


What type of contract? You need work done, but have time to audit the invoices



What type of contract? You need to rebuild a bridge ASAP after a storm



What type of contract? The project requires a high level of expertise to complete, and you want to have the best performance possible in a finished product



What type of contract? You need to hire a contractor to perform research and development



What type of contract? The scope of work is complete, but the economy is currently unpredictable



What type of contract? You are buying a standard commodities

Purchase order


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: Generally, what is being bought?

Cost Reimbursable: Service, goods may be included Time and Material: Service Fixed Price: Goods


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: Describe how the costs to the buyer might be stated in the contract

Cost Reimbursable: Costs are variable, but the fee is fixed Time and Material: Hourly rate or price per unit Fixed Price: As a set currency amount


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: Describe how the profit to the buyer might be stated in the contract

Cost Reimbursable: Listed separately and known to the buyer Time and Material: Included in the hourly rate and may be unknown to the buyer Fixed Price: Included in the price and unknown to the buyer


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: What is the cost risk to the buyer? (High, Medium, or Low)

Cost Reimbursable: High - Increases in costs are reimbursed by the buyer Time and Material: Medium - the costs are not fixed, this contract type is used for small purchases Fixed Price: Low - increases in cost are born by the seller


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: How important is a detailed SOW?

Cost Reimbursable: Low - the procurement SOW only needs to describe the performance or requirements since the seller provides the work. The buyer pays all costs, so there is less need to finalize the scope Time and Material: Low - this type traditionally has very little scope and may only describe skill sets required Fixed Price: High - the procurement SOW must be complete so the seller knows exactly what work needs to be done in order to come up with an accurate price to do the work


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: What industry uses this most for its contracts?

Cost Reimbursable: IT, research, development - when the work has never been done before Time and Material: legal, plumbing, programming - when hiring for an hourly rate Fixed Price: construction - complete scope of work is needed


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: How much negotiation is usually required to sign a contract after receipt of the seller's price? (High, Medium, or Low)

Cost Reimbursable: High - all estimated costs are looked at to calculate the fee to be fixed Time and Material: Low or none Fixed Price: None


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: What level of effort and expertise will the buyer need to devote to managing the seller? (High, Medium, or Low)

Cost Reimbursable: High Time and Material: Medium Fixed Price: Low


Cost Reimbursable, Time and Material, Fixed Price: How are costs billed to the buyer?

Cost Reimbursable: Actual costs are incurred, profit at completion or apportioned, as allowed in the contract Time and Material: Hourly or per unit rate (which includes all costs and profit) Fixed Price: Fixed price (which includes profit) according to a payment schedule as work is competed and as allowed in the contract


What Comes Before: Create Network Diagram

Create Activity list


What Comes Before: Prepare procurement documents

Go back - iterations


What Comes Before: Create Project Scope Statement

Finalize requirements


What Comes Before: Create WBS and WBS dictionary

Determine team


What Comes Before: Determine Critical path

Estimate time and cost


What Comes Before: Develop budget

Develop Schedule


What Comes Before: Hold kickoff meeting

Gain formal approval of the plan


What Comes Before: Determine quality standards, processes, and metrics

Develop budget


What Comes Before: Determine what to purchase

Create project scope statement


What Comes Before: Plan communications

Determine all roles and responsibilities


What Comes Before: Go back - iterations

Perform risk identification, qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, and risk response planning


What Comes Before: Create process improvement plan

Determine quality standards, processes, and metrics


What is a process improvement plan?

The process improvement plan details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities which enhance their value.


What Comes Before: Perform risk identification, qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, and risk response planning

Plan communications


What Comes Before: Estimate resource requirements

Create Network Diagram


What Comes Before: Create activity list

Create WBS and WBS dictionary


What are the inputs to the Collect Requirements process?

1) Project charter2) Stakeholder register


What Comes Before: Define Scope

Collect Requirements


What Comes Before: Create WBS

Define Scope


What Comes Before: Verify Scope

Create WBS


What Comes Before: Control Scope

Verify Scope


What Comes Before: Develop Project Charter



What Comes Before: Develop Project Management Plan

Develop Project Charter


What Comes Before: Monitor and Control Project Work

Direct and Manage Project Execution


What Comes Before: Perform Integrated Change Control

Monitor and Control Project Work


What Comes Before: Define Activities

Create WBS


What Comes Before: Sequence Activities

Define Activities


What Comes Before: Estimate Activity Resources

Sequence Activities


What Comes Before: Estimate Activty Durations

Estimate Activity Resources


What Comes Before: Develop Schedule

Estimate Activty Durations


What Comes Before: Control Schedule

Develop Schedule


What Comes Before: Estimate Costs



What Comes Before: Determine Budget

Estimate Costs


What Comes Before: Control Costs

Determine Budget


What Comes Before: Plan Quality



What Comes Before: Perform Quality Assurance

Plan Quality


What Comes Before: Perform Quality Control

Perform Quality Assurance


What Comes Before: Develop Human Resource Plan



What Comes Before: Acquire Project Team

Develop Human Resource Plan


What Comes Before: Develop Project Team

Acquire Project Team


What Comes Before: Manage Project Team

Develop Project Team


What Comes Before: Identify Stakeholders



What Comes Before: Plan Communications

Identify Stakeholders


What Comes Before: Distribute Information

Plan Communications


What Comes Before: Manage Stakeholder Expectations

Distribute Information


What Comes Before: Report Performance

Manage Stakeholder Expectations


What Comes Before: Plan Risk Management



What Comes Before: Identify Risks

Plan Risk Management


What Comes Before: Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

Identify Risks


What Comes Before: Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis


What Comes Before: Plan Risk Responses

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis


What Comes Before: Plan Procurements



What Comes Before: Conduct Procurement

Plan Procurements


What Comes Before: Administer Procurements

Conduct Procurement


What Comes Before: Close Procurement

Administer Procurements


+/- 2 sigma equals?



+/- 3 sigma equals?



+/- 6 sigma equals?

100.00%Note: not sure what this question means.


Change Control Board does what in regards to quality?

Evaluates all change requests (in Perform Integrated Change Control)


Control chart: Aside from quality, what else can a control chart help monitor?

Project performance figures; cost / schedule variances


Control Charts are described as?

1. Set up in the Plan Quality process as part of the effort to determine quality on the project 2. Utilized to Perform Quality Control where they help determine if a process is within acceptable limits 3. Display upper/lower specification limit lines 4. Display upper/lower control limit lines 5. Display planned/goal value lines


Control Charts are most commonly used for?

Monitor production and other processes to see if they are within acceptable limits


Could quality standards be processes?



Flowcharting can be described as?

1. Graphical representation of a process showing the relationships among process steps 2. Show activities 3. show decision points 4. show order of processing


Flowcharting is used how in the Plan Quality process?

Used to 'see' a process and find potential issues.


Flowcharting is used how in the Quality Control process?

Used to analyze quality problems.


Histogram is described as?

1. Displays data as bars or columns 2. Shows what problems are worth dealing with 3. Data in no particular order


If situation is looking back in time at processes?

3. most likely quality assurance


If situation is looking back in time at project results?

2. most likely quality control


Kaizen can be described as?

Continuous improvement; - Always looking for small improvements; - AKA Continuous improvement


New quality standards can violate other relevant standards.



Once existing standards are identified, what are the next steps for the PM?

To create additional standards needed by the project that are not covered by any other standard.


Pareto Chart is described as?

1. Type of histogram 2. arranges results from most frequent to least frequent to help identify which root causes are causing problems 3. Associated with the 80/20 rule


Pareto Charts help you do three things:

1. Help focus on the most critical answers 2. Prioritize potential causes of the problems 3. Separate the critical few from the uncritical many


Perform QC has what outputs?

1. Measurements 2. Validate changes 3. PM Plan and project docs updates 4. Change requests including corrective and preventative actions and defect repair 5. Lessons Learned 6. Validated deliverables


Perform Quality Assurance inputs are...?

1. PMP Plan ( Quality Mgmnt Plan and Process Improvement Plan) 2. Quality Metrics 3. Work Performance Info (tech performance measures, deliverable status, schedule progress) 4. Quality Control measurements


Perform Quality Assurance focuses on what?

1. Use measurements from Quality Control 2. Perform continuous improvement 3. Determine is activities are company compliant - quality audit 4. Find good practices 5. Share good practices with others in Co.


Perform Quality Assurance outputs are...?

1. Change requests 2. OPA Updates 3. PMP plan updates 4. Project document updates


Perform Quality Assurance PMBOK can be described as...?

Process of AUDITING the quality requirements and the results from Quality Control measurements to ENSURE appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.


Perform Quality Assurance Tools and Techniques are...?

1. Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control tools techniques 2. Quality audits 3. Process analysis


Perform Quality Control inputs are...?

1. PMP Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Quality checklists 4. Work performance measurements 5. Approved change requests 6. Deliverables 7. OPA


Perform Quality Control outputs are...?

1. Quality Control Measurements 2. Validated changes 3. Validated deliverables 4. OPA Updates (completed checklists, lessons learned) 5. Change requests 6. PMP Updates (QMP and PIP) 7. Project document updates


Perform Quality Control PMBOK can be described as...?

Process of MONITORING and RECORDING results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes


Perform Quality Control Tools and Techniques are...?

1. Control Charts 2. Statistical Sampling 3. Flowcharting 4. Checklists 5. Cause and effect diagrams 6. Histograms 7. Pareto charts 8. Run charts 9. Scatter Diagrams 10. Approved change requests review


Plan Quality focuses on what?

1. Find existing quality standards for product and project management 2. create additional project-specific standards 3. determine what work to do to meet these standards 4. how will you measure 5. how will you balance quality with scope, cost, time, risk, resources, and customer satisfaction 6. create quality management plan


Plan Quality PMBOK can be described as?

The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance


Plan Quality Process determines what?

What work will need to be done to meet the quality standards


Plan Quality Process inputs are?

1. Scope baseline (scope stmnt, WBS, WBS Dict.) 2. Stakeholder register 3. Cost performance baseline 4. Schedule baseline 5. Risk register 6. Enterprise environmental factors7 Organizational process assets


Plan Quality Process outputs are?

1. Quality Mgmnt Plan 2. Quality Metrics 3. Quality Checklists 4. Process improvement Plan 5. Project Document Updates


Plan Quality Tools and Techniques are...?

1. Cost benefit analysis Control Charts 2. Cost of quality 3. Control charts 4. Benchmarking 5. Design of experiments 6. Statistical Sampling 7. Flowcharting 8. Proprietary quality mgmnt methodologies 9. Additional quality planning tools


Poor quality has what impact?

1. Increased costs 2. low morale 3. low customer satisfaction 4. increased risk 5. rework 6. schedule delays


Precision and Accuracy are not equivalent. Describe the differences.

Precision: means the values of repeated measurements are clustered and have little scatter Accuracy: means the measured value is very close to the true value


Process Analysis is described as...?

1. Planned in at certain points in a project (after every 10th installation), 2. part of continuous improvement


Process Improvement Plan can be described as?

1. PM must improve current project processes 2. part of the project management plan 3. helps save time by increasing efficiency and preventing problems 4. Saves money and 5. increases customer satisfaction


Project Quality Mgmnt PMBOK addresses what?

1. The management of the PROJECT and the PRODUCT of the project 2. Applies to all project regardless of product 3. Product quality measures and techniques are specific to the product


Quality and Grade are not the same. Describe the differences.

Quality: the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements; Grade: is a category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics


Quality Assurance Department does what in regards to quality?

1. Periodically audits work 2. looks for best practices 3. looks to improve processes


Quality can be assured on a project by focusing on what specific actions?

1. Review project charter and scope 2. understand the customers definition of quality 3. desired level of performance of product has been identified 4. Set standards to reach quality goals 5. Make sure team members understand quality minimums 6. inspect work as it's being done not when completed 7. Measure performance against standards 8. perform QA and QC 9. perform quality reviews 10. make sure processes are followed


Quality Checklist can be described as?

A list of items to inspect, a list of steps to perform, or a picture of the item to be inspected with room to document differences


Quality Control Department does what in regards to quality?

Measure the performance of the project by looking at the quality of the deliverables


Quality Management inputs are?

1. Plan Quality 2. Perform QA 3. Perform QC


Quality Management Plans include what?

1. The quality practices and standards for the project 2. Who will manage quality 3. Review of earlier decisions to ensure they are sill correct 4. Meetings / Reports that will address quality 5. What metrics will be used to measure quality 6. What parts of the project will be measured


Quality Management results in what?

1. Project is completed 2. Quality targets are reached 3. Customer is happy 4. Org has improved processes


Quality metric can be described as?

An operational definition that describes, in specific terms, a product attribute and how the quality control process will measure it


Quality Metric examples are...?

1. on-time performance 2. budget control 3. defect frequency 4. The variance in weight 5. The number of bugs found 6. failure rate


Quality Mgmnt and Project Mgmnt compliment each other by recognizing the importance of what?

1. Customer Satisfaction; 2. Prevention over inspection 3. Continuous improvement 4. Management Responsibility


Quality must be balanced with what?

The other project constraints


Quality requirements are clarified by the...?

The project team


Quality requirements are determined by the...?

The customer


Quality requirements: Who determines the existing standards, policies, plans and procedures to meet the quality requirements?

Project Manager


Quality-Related PMI-isms relating to quality can be summed up with the following eight items?

1. The PM recommends improvements to standards, policies, and processes 2. Quality should be considered whenever there is a change 3. Quality should be checked before an activity or work package is completed 4. PM must spend time improving quality 5. PM must determine metrics to measure quality before the project begins 6. PM must put in place a plan to continually improve quality 7. PM must ensure authorized quality processes are followed 8. Some quality activities may be done by the QA / QC departments


Run Chart is described as?

1. Used to control quality by allowing you to look at history to see if there is a pattern. 2. Shows the history and pattern of variation 3. A line graph with data points in order in which they occur 4. Trend analysis uses run charts


Scatter Diagram is described as?

Tracks two variables to see if they are related


Seven Basic Tools of quality also known as?

Ishikawa's seven basic tools of quality


Statistical Sampling can be described as?

1. Take a sample of the total population and check for defects 2. Use when inspecting each products would: A. Take to long B. Cost too much C. Be to destructive


What are some examples of how the Plan Quality Process will result in changes or additions to the Project Management Plan and other various project documents?

1. Work can be added to the WBS 2. resources can be changed 3. various changes to the Project Management Plan


What are the two circumstances of when a project is out of control?

1. A data point falls outside the upper/lower control limit 2. There are non-random data points (such as rule of seven)


What does PMI want us to focus on regarding quality?

Focus on meeting the requirements.