Flashcards in Deck 6 Deck (101):
Delphi Technique is defined as?
Request for info sent to experts who participate anonymously, responses are compiled, and results are sent back to them for review until consensus is achieved.
Dictatorship group decision-making is defined as?
Single person makes the determination for the entire group; can have neg. impacts if no buy in from all SHs.
Facilitated Workshops is defined as?
Bring together SHs with different perspectives to arrive at consensus
Focus Groups is defined as?
This technique gets SME's / SH's opinions and requirements which is directed by a moderator.
Group Decision-Making techniques are (4)?
1. Dictatorship 2. Majority 3. Plurality 4. Unanimity
Majority group decision-making is defined as?
The groups chooses the decision that resulted in more than 50% of member support
Mind Maps is defined as?
A diagram of ideas or notes to help generate, classify, or record information.
Nominal Group Technique is defined as?
Participants rank the most useful ideas; usually done during Brainstorming
Plurality group decision-making is defined as?
If there is no majority opinion, the group goes with the one that has the most supporters
Product Analysis can be described as what?
To analyze the objectives and description of the product stated by the sponsor / cust. and turn them into tangible deliverables
Project Scope Statement can be described as?
1. Here is what we will do on this project 2. Here is the approved project and product scope for this project
Project Scope Statement involves what roles?
1. Stakeholders 2. outside experts 3. PM may identify areas where people want scope but it was not approved into the project
Project scope statement usually includes what pieces of information (6)?
1. Product scope 2. Project scope 3. Deliverables 4. Product 5. Acceptance 6. What is not part of the project 7. Constraints and assumptions
Questionnaires used for large or small groups?
For large groups
Requirements Mgmnt Plan is an output to what process?
Requirements Mgmnt Plan should answer what questions?
1. Once I have all the requirements, what will I do to analyze, prioritize, manage, and track changes? 2. What should I include in the Requirements Traceability Matrix?
Requirements Traceability Matrix has what attributes?
1. Helps track requirements over the life of the project 2. To analyze requirements when there is a proposed change 3. Requirement IDs 4. Who is assigned to manage requirement 5. Requirement status 6. Gives team members with 'work' beyond their tasks
Scope Baseline consists of what three pieces?
1. Project scope statement 2. WBS 3. WBS dictionary
Scope Baseline is used to evaluate the success of a project. True or False
Scope change results in what project aspects to be evaluated?
1. effect on time 2. cost 3. risk 4. quality 5. resources 6. customer satisfaction
Scope Management can be described as?
How scope will be 1. Planned 2. Executed 3. Controlled 1. Defining what work is required and making sure only that work gets done 2. Later parts of project planning can add scope, such as the Risk Mgmnt Plan
Scope Mgmnt Plan, as described by PMBOK, as five steps. What are they?
1. Determine requirements, they must support the business need of project as described in the project charter 2. Balance the needs of the Stakeholders to determine product scope and project scope 3. Create WBS 4. Verify that scope of work planned is being done 5. Measure scope performance and adjust as needed
Scope Mgmnt Plan: Is the Scope Mgmnt Plan iterative?
Scope mgmnt plan: What is an outcome of iterative scope mgmnt plan development?
later parts of project planning could add more scope
Scope: What does unnecessary scope do to a project?
It adds: 1. Time 2. Cost 3. Risk
Should a stakeholder request to add something new to a project that does NOT pertain to the project be rejected?
Unanimity group decision-making is defined as?
Everyone agrees on a single point of action
Verify Scope and Perform Quality Control: Describe their similarities and differences
Differences: the focus of the effort and who is doing the checking. 1. The QC dept does the Perform QC 2. Perform QC is usually done first 3. In Verify Scope, the customer checks the deliverables - Both involve checking for correctness of work
Verify Scope process can be defined as?
1. Involves frequent, planned-in, meetings with customer or sponsor to gain formal acceptance of deliverables during monitoring and control; 2. can be done at the end of each phase 3. Done during the Monitoring and Controlling process group
Verify Scope Process results in?
Formal acceptance of interim deliverables by the customer
WBS can be described as?
1. A deliverable oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work 2. identifies all deliverables 3. Foundation in which project is built 4. Each descending level increases in detail 5. Work packages are the lowest levels, in which the planned work is contained 6. Forces you to think through all aspects of the project 7. Can be reused on other projects 8. Does NOT show dependencies
WBS Dictionary can be described as?
1. Description of the work to be done for each work package 2. Ensures the resulting work better matches what is needed 3. Prevents Scope Creep 4. Is an output to the 'Create WBS Process'
WBS Dictionary: Are all the WBS Dictionary entries filled in at the beginning?
WBS has what benefits?
1. Helps prevent work from slipping through the cracks 2. As part of Integrated Change Control to evaluate impacts on scope changes 3. Provides team members a visual where their part fits within the project 4. Facilitates communication between team and other SHs 5. Helps prevent changes / controls scope creep 6. Provides a basis/proof for estimating staff, cost, and Time
WBS: Are more than just 'customer deliverables' included on the WBS?
WBS: How does a WBS help a PM manage a project?
1. Scope change; is the change inline with the project 2. As part of integrated change control to evaluate scope changes 3. Control scope creep 4. As a communications tool 5. To help new team members see their roles
WBS: The first level of the WBS is typically what?
The project life cycle
WBS: The last row of the WBS are the what?
WBS: What are some reasons to use a WBS over a list?
1. Items don't slip through the cracks 2. List does not allow you to break items into smaller pieces 3. list is created by one person while a WBS is created by many people 4. Allows team to walk through the project in their heads 5. Makes people feel the proj is more achievable 6. WBS shows how tasks relate to one another
WBS: What are the rules to creating a WBS?
1. Created with the help of the team 2. First level completed before broken down further 3. Each level is a smaller piece of the level above 4. The entire project is included in each of the highest levels 5. Includes only deliverables that are really needed 6. Deliverables not in the WBS are not part of the project
WBS: What goes at the top of the WBS?
The project title
WBS: What is the relationship (flow) for the WBS?
Project > Control Accounts > Work Packages ------- WBS Dictionary offshoot of work package > Activities
WBS: Why is a WBS better than a list?
1. May not include all deliverables; 2. the list may contain work packages > than the 8 to 80 rule; 3. list is usually created by one person, WBS by the team; 4. the process of creating the WBS allows the team to visualize the project which results in m
Control scope process: What is the PM's role regarding the control scope process?
To control the project to the PM plan and to meet all baselines
What process is the Assumptions Analysis a part of?
Risk Mgmnt process
Work Package has been reached when?
1. Can be realistically and confidently estimated 2. Can be completed quickly 3. Completed without interruption 4. May be outsourced
Work packages are further divided into what?
Work packages are reached when they include deliverables that:
1. Can be reliably and confidently estimated and managed 2. Can be completed quickly 3. Can be completed without interruption 4. May be outsourced or contracted out
Work packages can be worked on by more than one person. True or False?
Work Packages: Divide the Work Packages into activities is part of what process?
Acquire Project Team can be described as
1. Obtaining the human resources (team) needed to complete the project 2. The project management team may or may not have control over team member selection, for various resources. 3. Important to consider that: A. PM team must negotiate effectively with others to get team B. Failure to get the necessary team will likely affect project achievement of objectives C. If the resources are not available due to constraints, then other alternatives may have to be considered, which may increase risk, training needs, etc.
As additional team members are added their experience levels, or lack of, could cause what?
An increase in risk which would require risk planning updates
What is co-location and what benefits can it have?
Co-location is when you located the project team in one room (war room). It:1. It increases communication 2. Decreases the impact of conflict 3. Improves project identity
Conflict avoidance techniques used by the PM include
1. Informing the team of a. exactly where project is headed b. project constraints and objectives c. the contents of the project charter d. all key decisions e. changes 2. Clearly assigning work without ambiguity or overlapping responsibilities 3. Making work assignments interesting and challenging 4. Following good PM and project planning practices
Conflict is inevitable because of
1. Nature of projects trying to address needs of many SHs 2. Limited power of the PM 3. Necessity of obtaining resources from functional managers
Conflict resolution: who generally has the authority to solve conflicts?
1. PM should generally try to resolve conflicts as he/she has authority to do so 2. If not the sponsor or customer should step in 3. Lastly, the one exception is instances of professional and social responsibility (breaking laws, policies, ethics), the PM must go over the head of the person in conflict
Develop Human Resource Plan is described as what?
Identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, and reporting relationships, as well as creating a Staffing Management Plan.
Develop Project Team process is described as
1. Improves the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance 2. Create an environment that facilitates teamwork 3. Provide motivation through challenges and opportunities, timely feedback, reward and recognition, and other support as needed 4. Use open and effective communication 5. Develop trust among team members 6. Manage conflict constructively 7. Encourage collaborative problem-solving and decision making.
Enetrprise Environmental Factors for HR Planning include?
1. Orgculture and structure 2. Exisiting Human Resources 3. HR Policies 4. marketplace conditions
Expectancy Theory is what?
EEs who believe their efforts will lead to effective performance and who expect to be rewarded for their work will remain productive as rewards meet their expectations
Ground rules can be described as
1. What behavior is acceptable and what behavior is not 2. Very important when managing virtual teams
Halo Effect can be described as
The tendency to rate team members high or low on all factors based on some specific factor. For example, you are a great programmer so you will for sure be a good PM.
Herzberg's Theory is defined as
Note: didn't find this in PMBOK version 4. May be a version 3 thing.Deals with hygiene factors and motivating agents 1. Hygiene Factors - Poor hygiene may destroy motivation, but improving them, under most circumstances , will not improve motivation. Not sufficient enough to motivate people. Examples include: A. Working conditions B. Salary C. Status D. relationships at work 2. Motivating Agents - What motivates people to work. Examples include: A. Responsibility B. Self-actualization C. Professional Growth D. Recognition
Human Resource Plan can be described as
The process of documenting 1. the project roles and responsbilities, 2. orgcharts, and 3. staffing management plan (including timetable for staff acquisition and release) 4. indentification of training needs 5. team building strategies, 6. recognition programs, 7. compliance considerations 8. saftey issues, 9. effect od staffing plan on org
Interpersonal skills are useful for managing the project team. What are they?
1. Leadership 2. Influencing, particularly when the project manager's authority over team members is limited. 3. Effective decision making, including negotiation and influencing the organization
Manage Project Team process is described as?
1. Tracking team member performance 2. Providing feedback 3. Resolving issues 4. Managing changes to optimize project performance 5. PM Team observes team behavior, manages conflict, resolves issues, and appraises team member performance. 6. Complicated when team members are accountable to both a functional manager and the project manager within a matrix organization 7. Effective management of this dual reporting relationship is often a critical success factor for the project, and is generally the responsibility of the project manager.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is defined as what? What are the fve levels?
Not motivated by security or money but instead they are motivated to contribute and use their skills 1. Self-actualization 2. Esteem 3. Social 4. Safety 5. Physical
Motivation Theories include
1. McGregor's Theory of X and Y 2. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs 3. David McClelland's Theory of Needs (or Acquired Needs Theory) 4. Herzberg's Theory
Negotiation of resources requires the following:
1. Know the needs of the project and its priority within the org. 2. be bale to express how this project will benefit the resources manager 3. don't ask for best resources if project doesn't call for them 4. Resource's manager has his/her job to do as well and resource may not benefit from project 5. Be able to prove, using network diagram, proj schedule, etc. why the resource is needed
Org Process assets that influnce the team are?
1. Org Standard processes and polocies 2. standardized role descriptions 3. orgchart / PQs templates 4. historical info on org structures of previous projects
Organizational Process Assets that are inputs to developing the Human Resource Plan are?
1. Templates : a. Organizational charts b. Position descriptions c. Project performance appraisals d. Etc., Usually available from HR department or previous projects 2. Checklists: a. Project roles and responsibilities b. Team ground rules c. Health, safety, and Environmental d. Compliance
PM must think of the resources as what?
Think of the employees as your own
Powers of the PM: Which are derived from the PMs position?
1. Formal 2. Reward 3.Penalty
Powers of the PM: Which are the best?
1. Expert 2. Reward
Powers of the PM: Which is earned on your own?
Problem resolution steps include:
1. Define root cause not what was presented 2. Analyze the problem 3. Identify solutions 4. Pick a solution 5. Implement a solution 6. Review and confirm solution solved problem
Project Human Resource Management is described as what?
1. The processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team. 2. The team is comprised of the people with assigned roles and responsibilities for completing the project. 3. The involvement of project team members in planning processes can be beneficial
Project Sponsor works with the project team, typically assisting with
1. Project Funding 2. Clarifying sope 3. Monitoring progress 4. Influencing others to benefit the project
Project Team that is effective can be described as
1.- Shares a common goal 2. Strives to get a common job done 3. Has commitment to achieve organization's goals and objectives by accomplishing their work 4. Has diverse backgrounds and skills yet concentrates on a common effort 5. Has great loyalty to the project
Recognition and Reward systems can be described as
How you will motivate and recognize not just the team but each individual
Resolving conflict has six general techniques. What are they?
1. Withdrawing/Avoiding 2. Smotthing/Accomodating 3. Compromising 4. Forcing 5. Collaborating 6. Confronting/Problem Solving
Resource Breakdown structure shows what?
Breaks the work down by resource type
Resource Histogram can be described as
A bar chart that shows the number of resources used per time period and where there is a spike in the need for resources
Responsibilities of PMs in regards to HR include
1. Determine what resources will be needed 2. Negotiate with resource managers for best resources available 3. create a project team directory 4. create project JDs for team and SHs 5. Understand and make sure team members get training 6. Create formal plan in how team will be involved with the project (HR Plan) 7. Insert reports of performance into official company records 8. Create recognition and rewards systems 9. Make sure team members needs are taken care of
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) can be described as
1. The RAM establishes assignments for each WBS element/task 2. Show the roles and responsibilities of management, team members, and other SHs
The Roles and Responsibilities section of the HR Plan has 4 areas. What are they?
1. Role - label describing the portion of a project for which the person is accountable 2. Authority - the right to apply project resources, make decisions and sign approvals3. Responsbility - the work the person is expected to perform4. Competency - the skill and capacity required to complete the activity.
Roles and responsibilities are defined in what process?
HR Plan process
Roles and responsibilities: What are the ways to record the project teams roles and responsbilities?
1. Responsibility Assignment Matrix 2. Org Breakdown Structure 3. Resource Breakdown Structure 4. PDs
Staffing Management Plan can be described as
When and how human resource requirements will be met. It will direct ongoing team member acquisition and development actions. It is part of the human resources plan, which in turn is part of the project management plan.
Staffing Management Plan includes the following
1. Staff acquisition 2. Resource calendars (availability) 3. Staff release plan 4. Training needs 5. Recognition and rewards 6. Compliance with regulations, union contracts, policies 7. Safety (AKA Health, Safety, and Environmental)
Team building continues through the project until?
Team building exercises are...?
1. Team milestone races 2. Social events, like ice-cream cones in the conference room, bowling night, or anything that gives the team a chance to interact socially 3. Virtual teams can make it necessary to these activities in ways that permit remote interaction
Team development is described as?
Seek to improve knowledge and skills of team members, to increase their ability to effectively complete project deliverables - Foster feelings of trust and agreement among team members to maintain team morale and productivity - Create a positive team
Team Development stages are...?
1. Forming - Team members are polite, guarded, and businesslike; Leaders should emphasize directive behavior. 2. Storming - Team members confront each other, struggle for control and either become entrenched or opt out. Leaders should display directive and supportive behavior. 3. Norming - Team members confront issues instead of people, establish procedures collectively and become team oriented. Leaders must provide high support and low direction. 4. Performing - Team members settle down to opt and productive effort. Leaders must be willing to delegate and provide low direction and low support. 5. adjourning - Team completes the work and moves on. These stages reflect the team's "maturity"
Theory of Needs (or Acquired Needs Theory) is defined as
People are motivated by one of three needs: 1. Achievement 2. Affiliation 3. Power
Theory X is defined as Theory Y is defined as
1. A manager subscribes to the belief that EEs need to be watched every minute. People are incapable, avoid responsibility and work whenever possible 2. A manager subscribes to the belief that EEs are willing to work without supervision and want to achieve . People can direct their own efforts
Tools and technique of the Recognition and Reward process are?
1. Recognition and Rewards: Award decisions made during the process of managing the team through performance appraisals. 2. To be effective, such systems must make the link between behavior and reward clear, explicit, and achievable. Only desirable behaviors should be rewarded. Remember, we want the TEAM to succeed, so reward the TEAM.
Training is a _________ cost paid for by the __________ and documented in the ____________.
1. Project 2. Project 3. HR Plan
Training opportunities should be sought by the PM to.
1. Help team members, 2. decrease overall project cost by increasing efficiency 3. decrease overall project schedule by increasing efficiency
When activity duration are estimated, budgeted, scoped, or planned PRIOR to identifying all team members and their competency levels what may occur?`
Sctivity durations may be subject to change