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1

Dengue

most common arbovirus that is usually non-fatal and is transmitted by day biting Aedes mosquitoes

2

How many annual cases of Dengue?

approx. 100million

3

Dengue hemorrhagic fever

more serious form of dengue viral infection that causes bleeding under the skin, frequent vomiting and abdominal pain

4

Antibody-dependent enhancement

antibodies against one dengue serotype lead to a more severe reinfection or infection of a different serotype (complicated vaccine creation)

5

Symptoms of dengue

Fever, arthralgia, rash (FAR), severe flu-like symptoms

6

Dengue is transmitted by...

Aedes aegypti + Ae. albopictus
~ anthropophilic

7

Malaria

illness caused by Plamodium parasite and is transmitted by night biting female Anopheles mosquitoes

8

How many annual cases of Malaria?

approx. 250million

9

Malaria is transmitted by...

Anopheles gambiae + An. arabiensis
~ endophilic
~ anthropophilic

10

Endophilic

bite indoors

11

Anthropophilic

human biting

12

Name the two main types of Plasmodium that cause Malaria.

P. falciparum --> 50% cases, almost all deaths
P. vivax --> 43% cases

13

Arbovirus

arthropod-borne viruses that are biologically transmitted and replicate in the vector

14

Wolbachia

naturally occurring bacteria found in fruit flies that decrease dengue viral population and transmission in infected flies

15

wMel

Wolbachia strain that inhibits DENV (Dengue) in Aedes + has low fitness cost so easier to introduce

16

Hoffmann et al.

(2011)
Wolbachia spread through population w/ no current resistance

17

RIDL

a.k.a. release of male insects carrying dominant lethal gene
late-acting lethal line OX513A used

18

SIT

a.k.a. sterile insect technique
irradiating flies w/ gamma rays to make them sterile + allow them to compete with indigenous males

19

Bio-insecticide

bacteria that produce Cry + Cyt pore-forming toxins that lyse larval midgut epithelial cells
e.g. Bti = Bacillus thuringensis

20

Name the predacious mosquito larvae.

Toxorhynchites

21

Homing endonuclease genes

genetic elements that spread by cleaving chrom.s that don't contain them and then getting copied to the broken chromo as a byproduct of the repair process
(used on X chromo to make all offspring male)

22

Paratransgenesis

symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules (used to block/reduce parasite transmission)