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Flashcards in Definitions Deck (12):

Define Actors?

Agents of politics, individuals who make political choices e.g: voters


Define institutions?

Constraints on actors choices - formal (law) or informal (culture)


Define quantitative method?

Application of statistical techniques to observations to identify correlations and a casual relationship between variables.


Define qualitative method?

Use of non-numerical techniques such as text analysis and interviews to identify causal relationships and understand casual processes.


What is a dependent variable?

A subject the researcher would like to explain (e.g: democracy)


What is an independent variable?

A factor that the researcher believes is the cause of variation in the dependent variable (e.g: economic growth)


What is a hypothesis?

A proposed explanation of the causal relationship between independent variables and dependent.


The link between causality and correlation?

With causality, the 2nd even is a consequence of the 1st.
However, just because two events are correlated it does not mean that they are causally linked.


Define sufficient and necessary causes?

Sufficient cause: Cause in whose presence the effect must occur (fire and smoke)

Necessary cause: Cause in whose absence the effect cannot occur (no bourgeoise, no democracy)


Define deterministic and probabilistic causes?

Deterministic cause: Cause that ALWAYS produces a specific effect.

Probabilistic cause: Causes that influence the probability of the specific effect.


What is a majoritarian government?

Government by majority, no constraints on the will of the majority.
(E.g: Westminster; single party government in a parliamentary system)


What is a consensus model of democracy?

Constraints on the will of the majority, government by consensus.
(E.g: Coalition government or presidential system)