Dermatology Flashcards Preview

General Medicine > Dermatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dermatology Deck (73):
1

What makes acne worse

POP
hormone changes around menstruation
Thick, greasy make-up
Picking / squeezing spots
Heavy sweating
Humidity
Tight clothes
Diet high in milk and sugar

2

Skin care advice for acne

Don't wash more than normal
Mild soap, lukewarm water
Antiseptic washes
Fragrance free, water based moisturiser

3

Topical tx for acne

Azelaic acid
Salicylic acid
Benzoyl peroxide - antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, unlocks pores
Retinoids - unblock pores, anti-inflammatory
Topical antibiotics

4

Tablets for acne

Any systemic tx may take months to show effect.
- Antibiotics - tetracyclines (doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline) erythromycin, trimethoprim
- COCP esp Dianette
- Isotretinoin - specialist advice

5

Tx for scarring by acne

Laser resurfacing
Chemical peels
Microdermabrasion
Subcison - for depressed scars

6

Complications of acne

Anxiety
Depression
Low self esteem
Social isolation
Scarring
Post-inflammatory hyper-pigmentation

7

What is acne excoriee

Excessive scratching / picking at normal skin / skin with minor abnormalities --> irritation, inflammation and scarring.
Picking continues until material is pulled from the skin

8

What is dermatitis herpetiformis

Autoimmune blistering condition - associated with coeliac

9

Presentation of dermatitis herpetiformis

Intense itch
Bullous rash - papules/blisters upto 1cm
Extensor surfaces - esp scalp, buttocks, elbows, knees

10

Tx of dermatitis herpetiformis

Dapsone (anti-leprotic)
Gluten free diet

11

What is pompholyx?

Type of eczema - itchy blisters on hands and feet
Followed by inflamed dry skin

12

Causes of pompholyx

Metals such as nickel or cobalt
Antibiotic - neomycin
Certain chemicals - e.g perfume
Fungal infection of skin
Emotional stress

13

Tx of pompholyx

Compresses / soaks
Emollients
Steroids
Antibiotics
Antifungal
If severe / persistent --> dermatologist - PUVA, methotrexate, azathioprine, dapsone, tacrolimus

14

Prognosis of pompholyx

May clear up in 3-4 weeks + not return.
Or may be more persistent.
Some people have recurring short bouts.

15

What is seborrhoeic dermatitis

Skin inflammation, most common on the greasy areas of the skin - where most sebum is produced.
I.e scalp, forehead, sides of nose.
--> dry skin, red flaky patches

16

Tx of seborrhoeic dermatitis

Antifungal / antiyeast cream + shampoo - ketoconazole
Anti dandruff shampoo - zinc or coal tar based
Scale softener
Mild steroid cream
Pimecrolimus / tacrolimus cream
Anti fungal tablets
Phototherapy

17

Risk factors for compromised wound healing

DM
Peripheral vascular disease
Bleeding diathesis
Hx of keloid formation / scar hypertrophy

18

What is lichen planus?

Chronic mucocutaneous dermatosis
White striae
Plaques
Erosions in mouth
Skin papules
Scalp involvement leads to alopecia

19

Features of seborrhoeic keratosis

Pigmented
Benign tumour of basal keratinocytes
Occur on face and trunk of elderly people
Dark
rough
Greasy
Stuck on appearance
Well-defined edge

20

What is dercum's disease

Multiple painful lipomas
Most common in obese, middle aged F
+/- headaches, amenorrhoea, reduced sweating

21

Features of a lipoma

Soft, mobile lesions
Composed of fatty tissue
Painless

22

What is a deep capillary naevus also known as

Port-wine stain

23

Features of a deep capillary naevus

Congenital
Malformation of capillaries in deep and superficial dermis
Most commonly - unilateral on the face
+/- seizures, learning difficulties, eye abnormalities

24

What is sturge-weber syndrome

Collection of symptoms:
deep capillary naevus (port wine stain)
Fits
Developmental problems
Glaucoma

25

What is a superficial capillary naevus also known as

Salmon patch

26

Features of a superficial capillary naevus

Small
Flat
Pink patch
Poorly defined border
Common on forehead and nape of neck

27

Features of a ganglion cyst

Benign
Terse
Cystic swelling
Back of wrist
Painless

28

What is a cavernous haemangioma also known as

Strawberry naevus

29

Features of a cavernous haemangioma

Appears in 1st few months
Bright red lesion on face or trunk
Rapidly growing
Can ulcerate and bleed
Eventually regresses and disappears

30

Appearance and cause of acanthosis nigricans

Black, velvety overgrowth in axillae/neck/groin

Associated with diabetes, Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly, PCOS, Lymphoma, adenocarcinoma of GIT

31

Appearance and cause of Paget's disease of the nipple

Scaly, dry rash on nipple
Caused by breast cancer

32

Appearance and cause of tylosis

Hyperkeratosis of palms and soles
Due to oesophageal cancer

33

Appearance and cause of dematomyositis

Purple heliotrope rash on eyelids
Scaly pink rash on knuckles

Autoimmune condition related to polymyositis
Or
Caused by lung or breast cancer

34

Appearance of diabetic dermopathy

Depressed pigmented scars on the shin
Associated with diabetic microangiopathy

35

Appearance of pretibial myxoedema

Raised erythematous plaques over the shins and dorsum of feet.
In hyperthyroidism

36

Dermatological manifestations of hyperthyroidism

Pretibial myxoedema
Alopeica
Palmar erythema
Hyperhidrosis

37

Appearance and cause of erythema an igne

Brown lacy rash on skin
Due to exposure to heat for long periods
E.g. Hot water bottles, sitting against radiators

Common in hypothyroid patients who are cold

38

Dermatological manifestations of hypothyroidism

Alopecia
Dry coarse hair
Puffy skin
Peri orbital oedema
Xanthoma
Malar flush

39

Appearance and cause of xanthelasma

Yellow plaques around eyelid
Hyperlipidaemia

40

Appearance and cause of granuloma annulare

Small red-purple papules arranged in a ring
On back of hands or feet
Often due to DM

41

Appearance of a neurofibroma

Firm and rubbery
Single or multiple

42

Features of cellulitis

Erythema
Swelling
Local pain
Blistering
Pyrexial patient

43

What is a pyogenic granuloma

An acquired haemangioma
Commonly at the site of a thorn prick

Bright red nodule.
Bleeds easily
Enlarges rapidly over 2-3 weeks

44

Appearance of kaposi's sarcoma

Plaque / nodules in skin and mucous membrane
Bruise like appearance

45

Features of a sebaceous cyst

Arise from hair follicle
Common on scalp, face, ears, back, upper arms
Contain keratin

Painless
Mobile
Central punctum
Fixed to overlying skin
Not tethered to underlying subcutaneous tissue

46

Commonest cause of necrotising fasciitis

Group A streptococcus (e.g. Strep pyogenes)

47

Appearance of necrotising fasciitis

Erythema
Swelling
Necrotic tissue
Systemically unwell + fever

48

Appearance of impetigo

Thin walled blisters
Itch
Bleed
Golden crust

49

What causes livedo reticularis

Can be normal - response to cold
Vasculitis
Anti phospholipid syndrome
Polycythaemia rubra Vera
Cholesterol emboli

50

What is the most common form of skin cancer

Basal cell carcinoma

51

Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma

UV light exposure
X-ray exposure
Chronic scar
Genetic predisposition
Male

52

Presentation of basal cell carcinoma

Small, skin coloured papules
Telangiectasia
Pearly edge
Central necrosis

53

What is a rodent ulcer

Basal cell carcinoma

54

What is acrodermatitis enteropathica
Features

Rare inherited disorder of zinc malabsorption
Perianal and oral red scaly, pusular rash
Failure to thrive
Diarrhoea
Poor wound healing

55

Skin conditions associated with HIV

Leukoplakia
Oral candidiasis
Severe herpes episodes
Kaposi's sarcoma
Molluscum contagiosum

56

What 2 skin conditions can develop along side Reiter's syndrome

- keratoderma blenorrhagicum
- circinate balanitis

57

Appearance of keratoderma blenorrhagicum

Pustular
Crusty
Yellow-brown
Papular lesion
On soles of feet
Indistinguishable from pustular psoriasis

58

What is erythema nodosum

Presumed hypersensitivity reaction.
Dermatological manifestation of infectious, or other, disease

59

Appearance of erythema nodosum

Start as red, tender nodules. Poorly defined border - 2 to 6 cms.
Become tense, hard and painful.
May become fluctuant.
DO NOT suppurate or ulcerate.

60

What are lisch nodules and when do they occur

Fibromas on the iris
Occurs in neurofibromatosis

61

Difference between nodule and papule

Both raised
Nodule > 5mm
Papule <5mm

62

How many cafe au lait spots are significant

More than 5

63

What is a macule

Flat , non-palpable, colour change
<1cm

64

What is a papule

Raised, palpable, circumscribed lesion,
< 1cm

65

What is a plaque

palpable, circumscribed,
relatively flat topped lesion,
greater in surface area than in thickness,
> 1 cm,
can be smooth or irregular and scaly

66

What is a nodule

palpable, circrumscribed lesion,
larger than a papule - > 1cm and < 2 cm

67

What is a vesicle

clear fluid –filled lesion,
<0.5 cm = smaller than a bulla

68

What is a bulla

clear fluid-filled lesion,
>0.5cm = larger than a vesicle

69

What is a pustule

turbid fluid-filled lesion,
filled with inflammatory cells

70

What is lichenification

accentuated skin markings due to thickening of the epidermis

71

Conditions associated with pyoderma gangrenosum

Crohn's
UC
Rheumatoid arthritis
Beçhets
Active Hepatitis
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Myelo proliferative disorders (leukaemia, myeloma, lymphoma)

72

Appearance of pyoderma gangrenosum

solitary nodules / deep-seated pustules
rupture - form an ulcer.
Ulcer border has a deep purple / dusky colour
usually undermined edge.
bright erythematous / violaceous halo.
Necrosis is a common feature.

extremely painful

73

Most common organisms in cellulitis

Strep pyogenes
Staph aureus
(In infants - blood borne group B strep)