Flashcards in Dermatology Pathology Deck (44):
Define Herpes Simplex Virus.
- infection caused by herpes virus
List symptoms of herpes simplex virus.
- genital skin lesions
How would you treat herpes simplex virus?
- treat with aciclovir
Describe herpes zoster virus.
- virus that causes chickenpox and shingles
- shingles occurs when HZV reappears in the dorsal root or cranial ganglia
Describe the presentation of herpes zoster virus.
- eruptions of macules and papules
- in severe cases there is a dermatomal, unilateral pattern with severe pain and facial palsy
How would you treat herpes zoster virus?
- treat with aciclovir and vaccines in the elderly
- parasitic infestation by sarcoptes scabei spread by prolonged close contact
Describe the presentation of scabies.
- itchy rash that resembles eczema
- small papules, vesicles and pustules usually appear in hands, wrist and axillae
How would you treat a scabies infestation?
- topical scabicide applied overnight
- infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues respectively
Describes the presentation of cellulitis.
- tender, confluent areas of inflammed skin
- usually starts in the legs
How would you treat cellulitis?
- treat with antibiotics
An itchy skin condition in the last 12 months, plus three or more of;
- onset before age 2
- history of flexural involvement
- history of generally dry skin
- history of other atopic disease
- history in 1st degree relative if <4 years
Describe the presentation of eczema.
- especially in flexural areas
How would you investigate eczema?
- allergic contact patch testing
- IgG testing
How would you treat eczema?
- irritant avoidance
- topical corticosteroids
Define Steven-Johnson Syndrome.
- a severe drug reaction with <10% skin detachment and one or two mucosal sites involved
Define Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
- a severe drug reaction with >30% skin detachment
Describe the presentation of SJS and TEN.
- onset usually 1-2 weeks after drug exposure
- tender regions of maculopapular erythema
- mouth ulceration
- rapid confluent blistering
How would you treat SJS and TEN?
- identify and stop the culprit drug
- supportive therapy
- chronic, immune-mediated disease
- skin becomes inflammed and hyperproliferates at 10x the normal rate
- red, well-demarcated scaly plaques
List risk factors for melanoma.
- high UV radiation exposure
- genetic susceptibility
- familial melanoma
Describe the presentation of melanoma.
appears as a mole with;
Colour changes throughout
Evolution (recent changes)
- also important to know about oozing/bleeding
- altered sensation
How would you treat melanoma?
- urgent surgical excision
What is the most common malignant skin condition?
- basal cell carcinoma
Describe the presentation of basal cell carcinoma.
- appears as a slowly enlarging nodule on the neck or head area
- bleeds following minor trauma - doesn't heal
- pearly rolled edges
- central ulceration
How would you treat basal cell carcinoma
Which type of skin cancer develops keritinising squamous cells?
- squamous cell carcinoma
Describe the presentation of squamous cell carcinoma.
- fast growing
- can ulcerate
How would you treat squamous cell carcinoma?
Describe sebhorrhoeic keratoses.
- benign lesions that may indicate an underlying malignancy (like GI adenocarcinoma)
Describe the presentation of sebhorrhoeic keratoses.
- leser trelet sign - abrupt onset of widespread SKs, particularly in younger patients
- large warty growths with a stuck on appearance
- multiple cherry angiomas
How would you treat sebhorrhoeic keratoses?
- generally left untreated
- cryotherapy and curettage if required
Define Bowen's disease.
- intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma in situ
Describe the presentation of Bowen's disease.
- irregular, scaly erythematous plaque
How would you treat Bowen's disease?
- cryotherapy and curettage
- photodynamic therapy
Define acne vulgaris.
- disease of the pilosebacious unit causing comedones/whiteheads and blackheads
How would you treat acne vulgaris?
- benzoyl peroxide
Define acne rosaria.
- common inflammatory facial rash, which usually occurs in mid-adult life, due to immune system
Describe the presentation of acne rosaria.
- diffuse erythema, inflammatory papules and pustules that affect the face in an ace of clubs formation
How would you treat acne rosaria?
- topical cream
- skin disease of children spread by direct contact
Describe the presentation of impetigo.
- inflammed plaques with a golden, crusty surface
- usually on hands or face
- can be itchy