Dermatology Pathology Flashcards Preview

Systems 2A Pathology > Dermatology Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dermatology Pathology Deck (44):
1

Define Herpes Simplex Virus.

- infection caused by herpes virus

2

List symptoms of herpes simplex virus.

- coldsores
- genital skin lesions

3

How would you treat herpes simplex virus?

- treat with aciclovir

4

Describe herpes zoster virus.

- virus that causes chickenpox and shingles
- shingles occurs when HZV reappears in the dorsal root or cranial ganglia

5

Describe the presentation of herpes zoster virus.

- eruptions of macules and papules
- in severe cases there is a dermatomal, unilateral pattern with severe pain and facial palsy

6

How would you treat herpes zoster virus?

- treat with aciclovir and vaccines in the elderly

7

Describe scabies.

- parasitic infestation by sarcoptes scabei spread by prolonged close contact

8

Describe the presentation of scabies.

- itchy rash that resembles eczema
- small papules, vesicles and pustules usually appear in hands, wrist and axillae

9

How would you treat a scabies infestation?

- topical scabicide applied overnight

10

Define cellulitis.

- infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues respectively

11

Describes the presentation of cellulitis.

- tender, confluent areas of inflammed skin
- fever
- malaise
- usually starts in the legs

12

How would you treat cellulitis?

- treat with antibiotics

13

Define eczema.

An itchy skin condition in the last 12 months, plus three or more of;
- onset before age 2
- history of flexural involvement
- history of generally dry skin
- history of other atopic disease
- history in 1st degree relative if <4 years

14

Describe the presentation of eczema.

- itchiness
- scaling
- papules
- vesicles
- especially in flexural areas

15

How would you investigate eczema?

- allergic contact patch testing
- IgG testing

16

How would you treat eczema?

- irritant avoidance
- emolients
- topical corticosteroids

17

Define Steven-Johnson Syndrome.

- a severe drug reaction with <10% skin detachment and one or two mucosal sites involved

18

Define Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

- a severe drug reaction with >30% skin detachment

19

Describe the presentation of SJS and TEN.

- onset usually 1-2 weeks after drug exposure
- malaise
- myalgia
- fever
- cough
- tender regions of maculopapular erythema
- mouth ulceration
- rapid confluent blistering

20

How would you treat SJS and TEN?

- identify and stop the culprit drug
- supportive therapy

21

Describe psoriasis.

- chronic, immune-mediated disease
- skin becomes inflammed and hyperproliferates at 10x the normal rate
- red, well-demarcated scaly plaques

22

List risk factors for melanoma.

- high UV radiation exposure
- genetic susceptibility
- familial melanoma

23

Describe the presentation of melanoma.

appears as a mole with;
Asymmetry
Border uncircumscribed
Colour changes throughout
Diameter (>6mm)
Evolution (recent changes)
- also important to know about oozing/bleeding
- itch
- altered sensation

24

How would you treat melanoma?

- urgent surgical excision
- chemotherapy

25

What is the most common malignant skin condition?

- basal cell carcinoma

26

Describe the presentation of basal cell carcinoma.

- appears as a slowly enlarging nodule on the neck or head area
- bleeds following minor trauma - doesn't heal
- pearly rolled edges
- central ulceration

27

How would you treat basal cell carcinoma

- excision

28

Which type of skin cancer develops keritinising squamous cells?

- squamous cell carcinoma

29

Describe the presentation of squamous cell carcinoma.

- fast growing
- tender
- crusted
- can ulcerate

30

How would you treat squamous cell carcinoma?

- excision
- radiotherapy

31

Describe sebhorrhoeic keratoses.

- benign lesions that may indicate an underlying malignancy (like GI adenocarcinoma)

32

Describe the presentation of sebhorrhoeic keratoses.

- leser trelet sign - abrupt onset of widespread SKs, particularly in younger patients
- large warty growths with a stuck on appearance
- multiple cherry angiomas

33

How would you treat sebhorrhoeic keratoses?

- generally left untreated
- cryotherapy and curettage if required

34

Define Bowen's disease.

- intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma in situ

35

Describe the presentation of Bowen's disease.

- irregular, scaly erythematous plaque

36

How would you treat Bowen's disease?

- cryotherapy and curettage
- photodynamic therapy
- imiquimod

37

Define acne vulgaris.

- disease of the pilosebacious unit causing comedones/whiteheads and blackheads

38

How would you treat acne vulgaris?

- retinoids
- benzoyl peroxide
- antibiotics
- isoretinoin

39

Define acne rosaria.

- common inflammatory facial rash, which usually occurs in mid-adult life, due to immune system

40

Describe the presentation of acne rosaria.

- diffuse erythema, inflammatory papules and pustules that affect the face in an ace of clubs formation

41

How would you treat acne rosaria?

- antibiotics
- topical cream
- tetracylines
- isoretinoin

42

Define impetigo.

- skin disease of children spread by direct contact

43

Describe the presentation of impetigo.

- inflammed plaques with a golden, crusty surface
- usually on hands or face
- can be itchy

44

How would you treat impetigo?

- fusidic acid