Head and Neck Pathology Flashcards Preview

Systems 2A Pathology > Head and Neck Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head and Neck Pathology Deck (94):
1

Define otitis externa.

- infection of the external ear canal which is usually bacterial, but may be fungal

2

List symptoms of otitis externa.

- discharge
- itch
- pain
- eventual hearing loss

3

How would you investigate otitis externa/media?

- clinically with an otoscope

4

How would you treat otitis externa?

- topical antibiotics/antifungals

5

Define otitis media.

- infection of the middle ear due to pathogens coming from the upper respiratory tract via the eustachian tube

6

Name three common pathogens associated with otitis media.

- RSV
- strep. pneumoniae
- haemophillus influenzae

7

List symptoms of otitis media.

- otalgia
- hearing loss
- discharge
- TM perforation
- cloudy, red and swollen TM

8

How would you treat otitis media?

- NSAIDs
- amoxicillin if >72hrs

9

Define cholesteatoma

- keratinising squamous epithelium within the middle ear cleft

10

Name two causes of cholesteatoma.

- congenital
- due to infection

11

List symptoms of cholesteatoma.

- foul smelling ear
- discharge
- hearing loss
- otalgia
- balance distruption

12

How would you investigate cholesteatoma?

- clinically with an otoscope

13

How do you treat cholesteatoma?

- surgery

14

Define otitis media with effusion.

- inflammation in the middle ear not associated with infection
- secretions produced by the mucosa build up

15

List symptoms of otitis media with effusion.

- hearing loss
- dull TM
- loss of light reflex

16

How would you treat otitis media with effusion?

- grommet

17

Define otosclerosis.

- new bony deposits are layed down within the stapes footplate
- the stapes becomes fixed to the oval window, impairments movement of the stapes and so there's reduced conduction

18

Give the typical presentation of otosclerosis.

- conductive hearing loss
- usually 20-30 years
- normal looking TM

19

How would you investigate otosclerosis?

- audiometry
- tympanometry

20

How would you treat otosclerosis?

- surgery
- hearing aids

21

Define presbycusis.

- a degenerative disorder of the cochlea

22

List the symptoms of presbycusis.

- gradual onset hearing loss
- higher frequencies are lost first

23

How would you treat presbycusis?

- a high-frequency hearing aid

24

Describe benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

- neurological balance problem
- otoliths are dislodged into semi-circular canals, stimulating hair cells, making them stop/start on head movements

25

Define benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

- positional vertigo that lasts <1 minute and becomes less severe on repeated movements

26

How would you investigate benign paroxysmal positional vertigo?

- the Dix-Hallpike manoeuvre

27

How would you treat benign paroxysmal positional vertigo?

- the Eppley manoeuvre

28

Define vestibular neuronitis.

- inflammation of the inner ear

29

List symptoms of vestibular neuronitis.

- vertigo
- vomiting
- hearing loss
- tinnitus

30

How would you treat vestibular neuronitis?

- gaze stability exercises
- habituation exercises
- functional retraining

31

Define Meniere's disease.

- an increase in endolymphatic fluid in the inner ear, causing increased pressure in the labyrinth

32

List symptoms of Meniere's disease.

- low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss
- the feeling of fullness in the affected ear
- loss of balance
- tinnitus
- vomiting
- dizziness

33

How would you treat Meniere's disease?

- vestibular sedatives during an attack
- chemical labyrinthectomy

34

Define quinsy.

- a collection of pus outside the capsule of the tonsil usually caused by untreated bacterial tonsilitis

35

List symptoms of quinsy.

- pain
- odynophagia
- fever
- malaise
- deviated uvula

36

How would you treat quinsy?

- tonsillectomy
- antibiotics

37

Define a pharyngeal pouch.

- herniation of the mucosa through the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles

38

List symptoms of a pharyngeal pouch.

- neck swelling
- gargling sound after swallowing
- recurrent pneumonia due to aspiration

39

How would you investigate a pharyngeal pouch?

- barium swallow

40

How would you treat a pharyngeal pouch?

- surgery

41

Define allergic rhinitis.

- a hypersensitive reaction of the immune system to an allergen

42

List symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

- nasal irritation
- sneezing
- watery rhinorrhoea
- ear itching
- nasal blockage

43

How would you investigate allergic rhinitis?

- allergen skin test

44

How would you treat allergic rhinitis?

- allergen avoidance
- antihistamines
- decongestants
- NSAIDs
- steroids

45

Define nasal polyps.

- inflammation and oedema of nasal mucosa that prolapses into the nasal cavity causing obstruction

46

List symptoms of nasal polyps.

- nasal congestion
- sinusitis
- loss of smell
- nasal discharge
- mouth breathing

47

How would you treat nasal polyps?

- intranasal steroids
- surgery

48

Define rhinosinusitis.

- an infection of the paranasal sinuses

49

List symptoms of rhinosinusitis.

- frontal headache
- purulent discharge
- facial pain
- fever
- malaise

50

How would you treat rhinosinusitis?

- nasal decongestants
- antibiotics
- topical steroids

51

Define a thyroglossal cyst.

- dilation of the thyroglossal duct remnant

52

Define a thyroid nodule.

- a solitary nodule of the thyroid

53

How would you investigate a thyroid nodule?

- FNA
- ultrasound

54

Define parathyroid disease.

- the parathyroid glands either over or under-produce hormone

55

List symptoms of parathyroid disease.

- renal calculi
- aching bones
- depression/anxiety/psychosis
- abdominal pain

56

How would you investigate parathyroid disease?

- U&Es
- serum creatinine
- vitamin D
- ultrasound
- CT/MRI

57

Define conjunctivitis.

- an inflammation of the conjunctivae

58

Define a corneal abraison.

- trauma removes a focal area of corneal epithelium

59

List symptoms of corneal abraisons.

- severe pain
- lacrimation
- inability to open the eye
- reduced visual acuity

60

Define cataracts.

- opacification of the lens

61

List causes of cataracts.

- old age
- drug-induced
- traumatic

62

What is the main symptom of cataracts.

- gradual, painless loss of sight

63

How would you treat cataracts?

- surgery

64

Define primary open angle glaucoma.

- raised intraoccualr pressure due to a blockage in the trabecular meshwork

65

What is the main symptom of primary open angle glaucoma?

- gradual, insidious loss of peripheral visual field, causing loss of vision

66

How would you treat primary open angle glaucoma?

- beta blockers
- prostaglandin analogues
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

67

Define acute angle closure glucoma.

- sudden rise in intraoccular pressure due to trabecular meshwork becoming inaccessable

68

List symptoms of actue angle closure gluacoma.

- sudden onset, painful vision loss
- headaches
- red eye
- nausea and vomiting

69

Define uveitis.

- inflammation of the uveal tract
- can be anterior, intermediate, posterior or panuvitis

70

How would you treat uveitis?

- topical steroids
- oral/injected steroids
- immunosuppressants

71

Define giant cell arteritis.

- inflammatory granulomatous arteritis of the large cerebral arteries

72

List symptoms of giant cell arteritis.

- severe headaches
- tenderness over the scalp
- claudication of jaw
- vision loss
- optic disc appears swollen and pale

73

How would you investigate giant cell arteritis?

- fundoscopy
- raised ESR
- temporal artery biopsy

74

How would you treat giant cell arteritis?

- corticosteroids
- calcium supplements
- vitamin D supplements

75

Define optic neuritis.

- inflammation of the optic nerve

76

List symptoms of optic neuritis.

- sudden vision loss
- blurred or foggy vision
- reduced night vision
- photophobia

77

How would you treat optic neuritis?

- corticosteroids

78

Define macular degeneration.

- degeneration of the macula

79

What is the most common form of visual impairment in over 50's?

- macular degenerations

80

List symptoms of macular degeneration.

- gradual blurring and eventual loss of central vision
- decreased visual acuity

81

How would you investigate macular degeneration?

- fundoscopy
- slit lamp

82

How would you treat macular degeneration?

- Vitamin C and E supplements
- anti-VEGF injections

83

Define diabetic neuropathy.

- most common complications of diabetes
- painless vision loss

84

Define scleritis.

- inflammation of the sclera

85

List symptoms of scleritis.

- painful red eye
- photophobia
- low visual acuity

86

How would you treat scleritis?

- corticosteroids
- NSAIDs
- antibiotics

87

Define orbital cellulitis.

- inflammation of the tissues behind the orbit usually caused by sinusitis/dental infection

88

How would you treat orbital cellulitis?

- IV antibiotics
- surgery

89

Define a squamous cell papilloma.

- broad based growth around the eyelid caused by a virus

90

Describe the presentation of squamous cell papilloma.

- painless, raspberry texture growth

91

How would you treat squamous cell papilloma?

- surgical excision

92

Define a basal cell papilloma.

- a growth around the eyelid caused by sun damaged skin

93

Describe the presentation of basal cell papilloma.

- scaley surface over a thick plaque
- grows over weeks rather than months

94

How would you treat basal cell papilloma?

- surgical excision