Neurological Pathology Flashcards Preview

Systems 2A Pathology > Neurological Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurological Pathology Deck (39):
1

Define multiple sclerosis.

- chronic autoimmune disease of demyelination
- demyelination is found within the CNS, acute episodes are caused by focal inflammation

2

List symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

- loss of proprioception
- increased urinary urgency
- neuropathic pain
- fatigue
- spacisity
- sensory symptoms

3

What would you expect to find in the lumbar puncture of someone with multiple sclerosis?

- oligoclonal bands

4

Define myasthenia gravis.

- neuromuscular junction disorder where antibodies reduce the amount of ACh in the synapse

5

List symptoms of myasthenia gravis.

- muscle weakness
- diplopia (double vision)
- ptosis

6

How would you treat myasthenia gravis?

- ACh inhibitors
- steroids
- surgery

7

Give two causes of myasthenia gravis.

- a thymic tumour (10%)
- thymic hyperplasia (70%)

8

Define motor neuron disease.

- progressive disease affecting upper and lower motor neurones in the spinal cord

9

How would you investigate motor neuron disease?

- electromyography (EMG)

10

What is the approximate survival rate for motor neuron disease?

- three years

11

Define epilepsy.

- sudden synchronous discharge of cerebral neurons which may be focal or generalised

12

What investigations would you carry out into epilepsy?

- EEG
- MRI
- ECG
- serum calcium

13

How would you treat epilepsy?

- sodium valproate
- carbamezipine
- buccal midazolam (if seizure >5mins)

14

Define a cluster headache.

- recurrent bouts of extremely painful, unilateral headaches that usually last 15min-3hrs

15

How would you treat a cluster headache?

- verapamil (to stop bouts)
- subcutaneous sumatriptin (acute treatment)

16

How would you treat a migraine?

- NSAIDs
- triptans
- beta blockers

17

Define paryoxsmal haemicrania.

- frequent, less severe headaches

18

Define trigeminal neuralgia.

- electric-shock like pain that starts in the course of the manibular nerve

19

How would you treat trigeminal neuralgia?

- carbamezepine
- microvascular decompression

20

Define spina bifida.

- congenital defective closure of the distal neural tube

21

Name and define the types of spina bifida.

occulta - outer part of the vertebra are not completely fused
meningocele - meninges herniate posteriorly, forming a cyst filled with CSF
mylomeningocele - nerve also herniate

22

Define meningitis.

- inflammation of the meninges which can be bacterial or viral

23

List symptoms of meningitis.

- stiff neck
- fever
- altered mental state
- petechial skin rash
- high RR and HR

24

How would you investigate meningitis?

- blood cultures
- lumbar puncture
- CT

25

Define encephalitis.

- inflammation of the brain tissue

26

How would you treat encephalitis?

- IV antivirals
- anticonvulsants

27

Define Duchenne's MD.

- x-linked recessive disorder where dystrophin is missing in muscle

28

How would you investigate Duchenne's MD?

- muscle staining
- biopsy

29

How would you treat Duchenne's MD?

- steroids
- physiotherapy

30

Define subarachnoid haemorrhage.

- spontaneous arterial bleeding into the subarachnoid space, usually caused by a popped berry anaeurysm

31

Define Parkinson's syndrome.

Parkinson's is a loss of dopaminergic neurons caused by Lewy body dementia

32

List symptoms of Parkinson's syndrome.

- bradykinesia
- pill-rolling tremor
- rigidity
- postural inability

33

How would you treat Parkinson's syndrome?

- levodopa
- MAO-B inhibitor
- dopamine agonist

34

Define Alzheimer's disease.

- a type of dementia characterised by progressive impairment of congitive function in an altert patient

35

How would you treat Alzheimer's disease?

- cholinesterase inhibitor
- NDMA antagonist

36

Define Guillian-Barre syndrome.

- acute demylinating polyneuropathy with an immune-mediated, post-infective presentation

37

Describe the presentation of Guillian-Barre syndrome.

- paralysis 1-3 weeks after an infection
- weakness starts distally and moves proximally
- sensory loss

38

How would you investigate Guillian-Barre syndrome?

- nerve conduction studies
- lumbar puncture

39

How would you treat Guillian-Barre syndrome?

- immunoglobulins
- LMW heparin