Endocrine Pathology Flashcards Preview

Systems 2A Pathology > Endocrine Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Pathology Deck (60):
1

Define Type-1 Diabetes.

- diabetes due to lack of production of insulin

2

Describe type-1 diabetes

- autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells leads to none, or very low, levels of insulin being produced
- this results in increased blood glucose and lack of inhibition of ketones

3

List symptoms of type-1 diabetes.

- polyuria
- polydypsia
- weight loss
- fever
- malaise
- usually presents in younger patients

4

How would you investigate type-1 diabetes?

- random blood glucose
- fasting glucose monitoring
- monitoring HbA1c-c

5

How would you treat type-1 diabetes?

- lifelong insulin treatment

6

Define Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

- increased acidity of the blood due to complications of type-1 diabetes

7

List signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis.

- weight loss
- polyuria
- polydypsia
- tachycardia
- hyperventilation
- impaired consciousness
- smell of ketones on breath

8

How would you investigate diabetic ketoacidosis?

- urine dipstick

9

How would you treat diabetic ketoacidosis?

- replace fluid and electrolytes
- rapid acting insulin
- monitor blood glucose
- find underlying cause

10

Define Type-2 Diabetes.

- diabetes due to insulin receptor resistance due to constantly high plasma glucose levels

11

List symptoms of type-2 diabetes.

- retinopathy
- erectile dysfunction
- arterial disease
- skin lesions
- thirst
- increase frequency or urination
- lethargy
- blurring of vision

12

How would you investigate type-2 diabetes?

- fasting blood glucose
- random blood glucose
- HbA1c

13

How would you treat type-2 diabetes?

- metformin
- IGF-1 inhibitors
- insulin

14

Define Cushing's syndrome.

- increased cortisol secretion caused by either adrenal hyperplasia or and increase in circulating ACTH due to a tumour

15

List symptoms of Cushing's syndrome.

- moon face
- central weight gain
- straie
- easily bruised skin
- depression
- poor libido
- growth arrest in children
- proximal muscle wastage

16

How would you investigate Cushing's syndrome?

- 48hr low dose dexamethasone test
- ACTH test
- CT
- MRI
- CRH levels

17

How would you treat Cushing's syndrome?

- metryapone
- tumour removal
- pituitary irradiation

18

Define Acromegaly.

- chronic increase in growth hormone usually due to a GH secreting pituitary tumour

19

List symptoms of acromegaly.

- prominent supraorbital ridge
- large tongue
- visual field defects
- spade-like hands and feet
- carpal tunnel syndrome
- headaches
- deep voice
- goitre
- lethargy
- weight gain
- breathlessness
- excessive sweating
- poor libido

20

How would you investigate acromegaly?

- IGF-1 levels
- GH levels
- glucose tolerance test
- MRI

21

How would you treat acromegaly?

- surgery
- somatostatin
- GH receptor antagonists

22

Define Hypothyroidism.

- a reduction in the amount of thyroxine produced, usually due to autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland or iodine deficiency

23

List symptoms of hypothyroidism.

- lethargy
- weight gain
- heavy periods
- poor libido
- muscle weakness
- dry skin
- brittle hair
- constipation

24

How would you investigate hypothyroidism?

- thyroid function test

25

How would you treat hypothyroidism?

- levothyroxine

26

Define Hyperthyroidism.

- an increase in the amount of thyroxine produced, either due to Grave's disease or thyroxine-secreting tumours

27

List symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

- anxiety
- weight loss
- light periods
- sweaty palms
- leathery skin
- diarrhoea
- tremor
- ptosis

28

How would you investigate hyperthyroidism?

- thyroid function test

29

How would you treat hyperthyroidism?

- anti-thyroid drugs
- radioiodine therapy

30

Define Addison's disease.

- reduction of steroid hormones due to destruction of the supradrenal cortex

31

List symptoms of Addison's disease.

- hyperpigmentation
- malaise
- fever
- anxiety
- depression
- weight loss
- confusion
- postural hypertension

32

How would you investigate Addison's disease?

- short ACTH stimulation test
- CT
- U&Es

33

How would you treat Addison's disease?

- steroid hormone replacement therapy

34

Define Phaechromacytoma.

- rare tumour of the sympathic system that releases adrenaline and noradrenaline (10% are malignant)

35

List symptoms of phaechromacytoma.

- anxiety
- panic attacks
- sweating
- palpitations
- headache
- hypertension
- tachycardia
- bradycardia
- hypotension
- fever

36

How would you investigate phaechromacytoma?

- measure metabolites
- CT
- MRI
- PET

37

How would you treat phaechromacytoma?

- surgery
- alpha blockers
- beta blockers

38

Define hyperprolactinaemia.

- increased prolactin levels due to pituitary tumour or dopamine antagonists

39

List hyperprolactinaemia symptoms in women.

- galactorrrhoea
- sore breasts
- skipping periods
- delayed puberty
- decreased libido
- subfertility

40

List hyperprolactinaemia symptoms in men.

- galactorrhoea
- decreases libido
- erectile dysfunction
- delayed puberty
- gynacomastia

41

How would you investigate hyperprolactinaemia?

- visual field testing
- TFTs
- anterior pituitary function test
- MRI

42

How would you treat hyperprolactinaemia?

- dopamine agonist
- radiotherapy
- tumour resection

43

Define Conn's syndrome.

- increased aldosterone levels due to pituitary adenoma

44

List symptoms of Conn's syndrome.

- hypertension
- hypokalaemia
- muscle weakness
- nocturia
- tetany

45

How would you investigate Conn's syndrome?

- plasma aldosterone renin ratio

46

How would you treat Conn's syndrome?

- surgery
- aldosterone antagonist (spirolactone)

47

Define Hypocalcaemia.

- serum calcium <2.20mmol

48

List causes of hypocalcaemia.

- hypoparathyroidism
- vitamin D deficiency
- pseudohypoparathyroidism

49

List symptoms of hypocalcaemia.

- neuromuscular irritability
- laryngospasm
- bronchospasm
- bradycardia
- papilloedema

50

How would you investigate hypocalcaemia?

- serum and urine creatinine
- serum calcium
- PTH levels
- parathyroid antibodies

51

How would you treat hypocalcaemia?

- calcium (oral or IV depending on severity)
- treat underlying cause

52

Define hypercalcaemia.

- serum calcium >2.60mmol

53

List causes of hypercalcaemia.

- parathyroid adenoma
- excessive vitamin D
- malignant disease
- calcium sparing drugs

54

List symptoms of hypercalcaemia.

- polyuria
- polydypsia
- nephrolithiasis
- weight loss
- nausea
- vomiting
- muscle weakness
- decreased concentration
- decreased QT intervals

55

How would you investigate hypercalcaemia?

- ECG
- serum calcium
- serum PTH
- renal function test
- serum alkaline phosphatase

56

How would you treat hypercalcaemia?

- surgery
- regular measurement of calcium

57

Define multiple endocrine neoplasia.

- stimultaneous or metachronous occurance of tumours involving a number of endocrine glands

58

Name and describe the types of multiple endocrine neoplasia.

MEN 1 - gene defect in menin, which supresses a transcription factor resulting in decreased apoptosis and oncogenesis
MEN 2a - caused be a mutation in RET proto-oncogene in extracellular domain
MEN 2b - same as MEN 2a but in intracellular domain

59

Define pseudoparathyroidism.

- genetic disorder that causes the target organs of PTH to not response to its stimulus

60

List symptoms of pseudoparathyroidism.

- obesity
- short stature
- increased PTH
- signs of hypocalcaemia