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Flashcards in Development of the Nervous System Deck (25)
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1

When does human brain development begin?

3rd week post conception

2

The intra-uterine environment is important for neurological development. What are some examples of insults here which may be continuous throughout pregnancy?

Alcohol exposure and CMV infection

3

What is the embryonic period of neurological development?

Conception to 8 weeks

4

Which part of the embryo becomes us? Which part evolves into the placenta and cord?

Us = epiblast, placenta and cord = hypoblast

5

What is the first defined neural structure to form? When does this occur?

Neural tube- 20-27 days

6

What will the hollow centre of the neural tube go on to become?

Ventricular system and the central channel of the spinal cord

7

What will the anterior/rostral parts of the neural tube go on to become?

Brain

8

What will the caudal part of the neural tube go on to become?

Spinal cord

9

If the neural tube does not close at the bottom, what can this result in?

Spina bifida or neural tube defect

10

High concentration of Pax6 with low concentration of Emx2 induces progenitors to differentiate into what?

Motor neurones

11

Low concentration of Pax6 with high concentration of Emx2 induces the formation of what neurones?

Visual cortex neurones

12

What defines the foetal period of neurological development?

9 weeks to term

13

When is the primary sulci of the brain formed?

Week 8-26

14

When is the secondary sulci of the brain formed?

Weeks 30-35

15

When is the tertiary sulci of the brain formed?

36 weeks +

16

What is the function of axons?

Transmit signals from neurones

17

What is the function of dendrites?

Transmit information to neurones

18

When does myelination occur?

Postnatally

19

Physical maturation is adolescence is due to what? Do these act on the brain?

Gonadal hormones- they act on the brain as the brain has many steroid receptors

20

What hormone makes girls more prone to stress?

Oestrogen

21

What hormone makes boys less prone to stress?

Androgen

22

What does the PLP1 gene encode?

A transmembrane protein, the predominant myelin protein

23

The PLP1 gene is located where?

X chromosome

24

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease occurs because of a mutation where?

PLP1 gene

25

How does Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease present?

In infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia and cognitive impairment, which progresses to severe spasticity and ataxia