What is the definition of developmental delay?
The failure to attain milestones for the childs corrected chronological age
What are 2 examples of regressive developmental delay?
- Rett's syndrome - Metabolic disorders
Development is a continuous maturation of what system?
What is the direction of development?
What are some general red flags for a developmental delay?
- Asymmetry of movement - Concerns with vision/hearing - Loss of gained skilled
At what age would 'not reaching for objects' be a red flag for developmental delay?
At what age would 'unable to sit unsupported' be a red flag for developmental delay?
At what age would 'unable to walk' be a red flag for developmental delay? What test should be done?
18 months- check CK
At what age would 'unable to speak' be a red flag for developmental delay? What would be the exception to this?
18 months Exception is if the child is being raised bilingual
If a child has red flags for developmental delay but there is no pathology, what could be the cause?
Global developmental delay is defined as a significant delay in 2 or more of?
- Gross/fine motor - Speech and language - Cognition - Social/personal communication - ADL
Genetic problems are a common cause of global developmental delay. What condition should always be tested for?
What IQ constitutes each of the following learning disabilities: a) mild? b) severe? c) profound?
Mild- 50-70 Severe- 20-50 Profound- < 20
What are some examples of specific motor delays?
Cerebral palsy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, co-ordination disorders
What are some examples of specific sensory delays?
Albinism, Treacher-Collins Syndrome
What 3 areas are affected by albinism?
Eyes, skin, hair
Children with developmental delay will probably plateau around what age?
What chromosomal abnormality causes Down's syndrome?
What are some problems a child with Down's syndrome may experience?
- Congenital heart disease or other heart problems - Hypothyroidism - Visual disturbance - Hearing problems - Sleep related breathing disorders
How is Duchenne muscular dystrophy inherited? What sex does it affect?
X-linked recessive Affects boys
Where is the muscle weakness in Duchenne muscular dystrophy? What are two adaptations which occur to try and overcome this?
Pelvic girdle muscles Increased lumbar lordosis, Gower's manoeuvre when standing up
How can Duchenne muscular dystrophy present?
Motor or speech delay, or a loss of skills as they get older
What is the most common motor type of cerebral palsy? How do the muscles appear? Where is the damage to the brain?
Spastic Stiff and tight Damage to the motor cortex
What characterises dyskinetic cerebral palsy? Where in the brain is affected?
Involuntary movements Basal ganglia
What characterises ataxic cerebral palsy? Where in the brain is affected?
Shaky movements, affects balance and proprioception Cerebellum
Where is affected in hemiplegic cerebral palsy? How will the child walk?
One arm and one leg on the same side Will walk on the tiptoe of the affected side
Where is affected by paraplegic and diplegic cerebral palsy?
Paraplegic- both legs only, or both arms only Diplegic- as above, with slight involvement of somewhere else
Where is affected by quadriplegic cerebral palsy? How will the child walk? How is their cognitive development?
All 4 limbs Feet turned inwards Severe brain damage
What type of cerebral palsy is becoming more common in preterm infants, and where there has been foetal damage in late pregnancy? What type of visual disturbance often occurs alongside this?
Diplegic Inferior visual field defects
What 3 things make up the triad of autism? What are two other common problems?
Communication, social interaction, flexibility of though/imagination Sensory difficulties and restricted, repetitive behaviours