Developmental Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Deck (19):
1

Nature Vs Nurture

Experiences or maturation

2

Stability vs Change

To what extent are behaviours constant over the life span

3

Continuity vs Stages

Continuity suggests that change is uniform and gradual
- Stage theory suggests that change occurs in phases / stages

4

Teratogem

Environment substances that can cause birth defects

5

Motor Milestones / infants

Early movement is limited
- Infant vision is poor at birth

6

Functionality of senses

Hearing, smell, touch and pain are all functional at birth
- Infants are capable or producing a range of responses

7

Attachment

An active, emotional relationship between two people that endures over time

8

Harlows Monkeys

Would always seek out the cloth mother over the wire mother as it is more comfortable?? and you spend more time with the cloth mother

9

Attachment Behavours

Phase 1: 0-8 weeks, indiscriminate social response

Phase 2: 2-7months, discriminate social responsiveness, orientates and signals to 1 or more persons

Phase 3: 8 months - 2 years, focused attachment, wary of strangers

Phase 4: 2-3 Years, development of partnership and mutuality

Phase 5: School age, relationship based on trust, affection and approval

10

Functions of Attachment

Ensure infants survival
Promote a working model of relationships
Attachment figure provides a secure base from which the infant can explore and learn

11

Piaget anmd Cognition

Cognitive reasoning is primitive at birth and gets better as one gets older

12

Schemas

Basic units of intellect
- Organisation of ideas
- Idea about what something is and how to deal with it

13

Cognitive Adaption

Assimilation allows an existing schema to adapt to the environment

Accommodation allows the schema to change in order to handle a new environmental situation

14

Scheme

Mental Process
Associated with labelling and naming
guides behaviour

15

Cognitive Development Stages

Sensorimotor Period: Birth-2 years
Simple schemes inc. interaction with people and objects

Pre-operational Period: 2-7, begin to use mental representations but problem solving is limited

Concrete Operations: 7-11, Performs mental operations

Formal Operations: 12-Adult, can use formal problem solving and higher level abstract thinking

16

Ego- Centrism

Refers to the incapacity of the child to see or adopt others perspectives

17

Pre-causal Reasoning

Absence of true mental operations precludes cause and effect reasoning

18

Conservation

Ability to recognise that a given quantity, weight, or volume remains the same despite changes in shape, length, position

19

Temperament

Thomas and chess categorise infants into 3 types:

Easy: Happy relaxed and agreeable (40%)

Difficult: Moody, easily frustrated, over-reactive (15%)

Slow to Warm up: Shy, withdrawn (15%)