Diabetes and Insulin Flashcards Preview

Biochem Final > Diabetes and Insulin > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diabetes and Insulin Deck (15)
1

What is diabetes?

insulin insufficiency, cannot maintain blood glucose homeostasis

2

What are the three types of diabetes?

type 1: autoimmune disease, lack of insulin
type 2: acquired insulin resistance
gestational: type 2-like, occur during pregnancy

3

What happens when the body has too much insulin?

hypoglycemia

4

Why might a diabetic patient experience chronic fatigue?

tissues are constantly starved for energy

5

What type of diabetes will have elevated fat mobilization from adipose tissues?

Type 1 - body thinks it is starving even if there's already a lot of glucose in the blood

6

What are the effects of sorbitol?

it is a reduction of glucose
- stays inside of cells
- consumes NADPH
- draws water into cells
**blurred vision comes from sorbitol - drawing of water into lens

7

Which diabetes is this:
- nonketotic hyperglycemia
- polyuria
- polydipsia
- dehydration
- coma

Type 2
dehydration can lead to nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome
- all symptoms are due to too high of blood glucose concentration

8

Hyperlipidemia mostly occurs in which type of diabetic patients?

Type 1
in the absence of insulin, hormone sensitive lipase remains active

9

Which diabetes is this:
- hyperglycemia
- ketoacidosis

Type 1
- no insulin to utilize glucose
- FA is constantly being cleaved from HSL, leading to more production of ketone bodies

10

- low glucose uptake and ineffective catabolism of glucose
- constant gluconeogenesis

Hyperglycemia

11

- low FA release from chylomicrons and VLDL
- constant release of FA from adipose tissue

Hyperlipidemia

12

insulin utilizes what type of receptors for its signal cascade?

tyrosine kinase - autophosphorylation...Ras...MAPK...

13

In regards to glycogen metabolism, how does insulin affect it?

increase glycogen synthesis
decrease glycogen degradation

14

In regards to glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, how does insulin affect those two pathways?

increases glycolysis
decreases gluconeogenesis

15

In regards to lipid metabolism, how does insulin affect it?

increase FA synthesis
increase cholesterol synthesis
decrease FA mobilization
decrease ketogenesis