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Flashcards in Overall metabolism Deck (12)

induce genes for FA oxidation and ketone synthesis via peroxisome proliferation response element (PPRE)
What's the stimulus and signal?

stimulus: FA
signal: starvation (lipolysis)


- induces genes for gluconeogenesis via CREB-binding element (CRE)
- represses genes for lipid synthesis via CRE
What's the stimulus and signal?

stimulus: glucagon
signal: starvation


- induces genes for lipid synthesis via SREBP-1c responsive element (SRE)
- represses genes for gluconeogenesis and FA oxidation via insulin response element (IRE)

stimulus: insulin (growth factor- induces cell growth)
signal: well-fed state


Under what conditions would AMPK phosphorylate the following key enzymes, inhibiting them:
- gluconeogenesis
- protein synthesis
- lipogenesis
- cholesterol synthesis

cell is low in energy (decreased ATP)


What is the fuel preference of the heart?

FAs, but can also use glucose, lactate and ketone bodies (lactate dehydrogenase isoform is expressed in the heart)


What is the fuel preference of skeletal muscles?

FAs, can also use glucose and ketone bodies


Hormone sensitive lipase is inhibited by which hormone, insulin or glucagon?



Which part of TAG can be made into glucose?

glycerol only


Under what condition would the liver glycogen stores are fully depleted (non-pathologic)?

late fast stage


What are two conditions that need to be considered when re-feeding a severely starved patient?

1) patient will lack digestive enzymes because they have been broken down for energy (they're proteins, too)
2) intracellular phosphate stores are depleted (consequence of FA)


Why do we experience a "period of weakness" when exercising for an extended period of time?

takes time for the conversion between glucose utilization to FA oxidation


Under well-fed conditions, what does the liver convert excess glucose into?

TAGs for export in VLDL and storage in adiopose tissues