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Flashcards in Diabetes - Classification & Diagnosis Deck (57)
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1

If a patient is symptomatic of hyperglycaemia, how many abnormal blood glucose or HbA1c results must be obtained for them to be diagnosed with diabetes?

One

2

If a patient is asymptomatic, how many abnormal blood glucose or HbA1c results must be obtained for them to be diagnosed with diabetes?

Two (on two separate occasions)

3

What are the major symptoms of hyperglycaemia?

Polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, fatigue

4

A fasting blood glucose of greater than or equal to what value is suggestive of a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?

7mmol/L

5

A random blood glucose of greater than or equal to what value is suggestive of a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?

11.1mmol/L

6

A blood glucose level of greater than or equal to what two hours after an oral glucose tolerance test is suggestive of a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?

11.1mmol/L

7

An HbA1c value of greater than or equal to what is suggestive of a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?

48mmol/mol (6.5%)

8

Does having an HbA1c value of < 48mmol/mol rule out a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus?

No

9

HbA1c provides a measure of glycaemic control over what time period?

The previous 2-3 months

10

An HbA1c value of greater than what is suggestive of poor diabetic control?

75mmol/mol

11

An HbA1c or blood glucose value which falls between the normal value and the value which is diagnostic of diabetes mellitus can be defined as what?

Pre-diabetes

12

A normal HbA1c value is what value or less?

41mmol/mol

13

A normal fasting blood glucose level is what value or less?

6mmol/L

14

A normal random blood glucose level is less than what value?

11.1mmol/L

15

A normal blood glucose level 2 hours after an oral glucose tolerance test is what value or less?

7.7mmol/L

16

Type 1 diabetes is usually adolescent in onset, but has a secondary peak when?

Late 30s

17

Type 1 diabetes is a state of absolute insulin deficiency as a result of what?

Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells

18

Type 1 diabetes has strong associations with other autoimmune conditions because > 90% of those affected by it carry at least one of which two genes?

HLA-DR3 and/or HLA-DR4

19

Type 1 diabetes has a most significant overlap with which other autoimmune condition? If you are testing for type 1 diabetes autoantibodies, you should test for which other ones at the same time?

Coeliac disease - also test for anti-TTG antibodies

20

What is the concordance rate of type 1 diabetes in identical twins?

30%

21

What is a rare form of type 1 diabetes which involves a slower progression to insulin dependence in later life?

Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA)

22

Polyuria associated with type 1 diabetes may present as what in children?

Enuresis

23

What is the concordance rate of type 2 diabetes in identical twins?

> 80%

24

What is a rare form of type 2 diabetes which affects young people with a strong family history?

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)

25

What are some pancreatic conditions which may cause secondary diabetes mellitus?

Chronic pancreatitis, haemochromatosis, CF

26

What are some examples of drugs which may cause secondary diabetes mellitus?

Glucocorticoids, thiazide diuretics, beta blockers

27

What are the 4 main features of metabolic syndrome (syndrome X)?

Central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance

28

The presence of ketones on urinalysis is most suggestive of which type of diabetes mellitus?

Type 1

29

What are 3 useful tests for ruling out type 1 diabetes?

GAD/islet cell autoantibodies, C-peptide, ketones

30

Blood ketones of greater than what value would be considered significant?

1.5mmol/L