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Flashcards in Reproductive - Physiology Deck (72)
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1

In the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis, what is released from the hypothalamus?

GnRH

2

In the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis, what is released from the pituitary gland?

LH and FSH

3

In males, where does LH exert its action? What effect does it have?

It acts on the Leydig cells of the testes to stimulate testosterone production

4

What are some actions of testosterone in males?

Anabolism, male secondary sexual characteristics, maintenance of libido

5

When testosterone is produced by the testes, it acts locally to aid with what process?

Spermatogenesis

6

Testosterone exerts negative feedback on which hormones involved in the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis?

GnRH, LH and FSH

7

In males, where does FSH exert its action? What effect does it have?

It acts on the Sertoli cells of the testes to produce mature sperm

8

Inhibin exerts negative feedback on which hormones involves in the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis?

FSH

9

What is the action of activin?

To counteract inhibin, and promote secretion of FSH

10

What is the average duration of the menstrual cycle?

28 days

11

How often is GnRH produced?

2 hourly intervals

12

In females, where does LH exert its action? What effect does it have?

It acts on the theca cells of the ovary to stimulate androgen production

13

In females, where does FSH exert its action? What effect does it have?

It acts on the granulosa cells of the ovary to stimulate follicular development and activity of aromatase

14

In both males and females, the action of FSH also results in the production of what hormone?

Inhibin

15

What is the role of aromatase?

To convert ovarian androgens into oestrogen

16

The mechanisms initiating puberty are thought to result from what?

Withdrawal of central inhibition of GnRH release

17

What peptide is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of GnRH production and the timing of puberty?

Kisspeptin

18

LH and FSH are both low in the pre-pubertal child. In early puberty, which begins to rise first?

FSH

19

What is the average age of puberty onset in males?

12 years

20

What is the first sign of puberty to develop in males?

Enlargement of the testes

21

A boy has officially entered puberty when the testicular volume reaches what?

4ml

22

What is the average age of puberty onset in females?

11 years

23

What is the first sign of puberty to develop in females?

Development of breast buds

24

What is the average age of the onset of menarche in females?

13 years

25

Menarche usually occurs when in relation to the onset of puberty?

2-3 years later

26

What days of the menstrual cycle correspond to the follicular phase?

Days 1-13

27

Day 1 of the menstrual cycle corresponds to what physiological event?

The first day of menstruation

28

What days of the menstrual cycle correspond to the ovulatory phase?

Day 14

29

What days of the menstrual cycle correspond to the luteal phase?

Days 15-28

30

An increase in the level of what hormone stimulates the dominant follicle to develop, and kicks off the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle?

FSH