Reproductive - Female Hypogonadism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproductive - Female Hypogonadism Deck (48)
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1

What is the most common presentation of female gonadal disease?

Oligo or amenorrhoea

2

What is meant by the term primary amenorrhoea?

The failure to start menstruating

3

When is investigation required for primary amenorrhoea?

In those aged 16+, or those aged 14+ where there is also absence of secondary sexual characteristics

4

What is meant by the term secondary amenorrhoea?

The absence of periods for > 6 months in someone who has previously menstruated

5

What is meant by the term oligomenorrhoea?

The presence of infrequent periods

6

What is the most common cause of oligomenorrhoea throughout the reproductive years?

PCOS

7

What is the most important investigation to perform in anyone presenting with amenorrhoea?

Pregnancy test

8

What happens to the level of serum gonadotrophins in hypothalamic or pituitary causes of hypogonadism?

Low

9

What happens to the level of serum gonadotrophins in ovarian causes of hypogonadism?

High

10

Abnormalities of which other hormones controlled by the anterior pituitary gland have the ability to cause hypogonadism?

Thyroid hormones (hypo or hyper) and prolactin (raised)

11

What is the term for amenorrhoea with low oestrogen and gonadotrophins in the absence of organic pituitary disease?

Hypothalamic amenorrhoea

12

What are some causes of hypothalamic amenorrhoea?

Stress, excessive exercise, weight loss

13

Give two examples of pituitary disease which may result in hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in females?

Prolactinoma, Sheehan's syndrome

14

What is the term for absent or delayed sexual development associated with inappropriately low levels of gonadotrophins and sex hormones, in the absence of any anatomical or functional defects of the HPO axis?

Idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism

15

Genetic mutations causing IHH often involve the ligand for what protein?

Kisspeptin

16

What is the major defect in IHH?

The inability to activate GnRH secretion at puberty

17

In Kallmann's syndrome, there is a deficiency of what? What is the most commonly associated feature alongside hypogonadism?

GnRH / anosmia

18

Other than anosmia, what are some other clinical features that may occur in individuals with Kallmann's syndrome?

Colour blindness and cleft palate

19

How may Kallmann's syndrome be inherited?

X linked or autosomal recessive

20

What can be done to induce menstruation in individuals with mild hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation (e.g. stress, moderate weight loss) causing hypogonadism?

Progesterone challenge

21

What treatment can be used to restore fertility or menstruation in women with mild cases of hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation causing hypogonadism?

Clomifene citrate

22

What treatment can be used to restore fertility or menstruation in women with severe cases of hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation causing hypogonadism?

GnRH injections

23

What are the 3 most common causes of ovarian failure causing hypogonadism?

Ovarian dysgenesis, Turner's syndrome, premature ovarian failure

24

How and when do those with Turner's syndrome typically present?

In the later teenage years with an absence of secondary sexual characteristics and primary amenorrhoea

25

What are some phenotypic features of Turner's syndrome?

Short stature, webbed neck, wide spaced nipples

26

Besides ovarian failure, what are some other potential complications that may occur with Turner's syndrome?

Spina bifida, deafness and coarctation of the aorta

27

What are some iatrogenic causes of premature ovarian failure?

Bilateral oophorectomy, radiotherapy to the pelvis, some chemotherapy regimens

28

Premature ovarian failure involves amenorrhoea, oestrogen deficiency and elevated gonadotrophins occurring in women of what age?

< 40 years

29

How is premature ovarian failure diagnosed?

FSH > 30 on two separate occasions, more than one month apart, in association with low oestrogen levels

30

What treatment is necessary for those with premature ovarian failure?

Hormone replacement therapy