What are the 2 types of classification?
What does the DSM-5 require for a diagnosis of Sz?
One positive symptom of Sz
What does the ICD-10 require for a diagnosis of Sz?
2 or more negative symptoms of Sz
What classification recognises subtypes of Sz?
What are the positive symptoms of Sz?
additional experiences beyond those of ordinary experience
E.g. Hallucinations, Delusions
What are negative symptoms?
Involve the loss of a usual experience eg. clear thinking or normal levels of motivation
- Avolition - Speech Poverty
Give 2 examples of hallucinations
unusual sensory experiences - may have relations to events in the environment but not always
E.G. hearing voices talking to/commenting on the sufferer, distorted facial expressions
Give 2 examples
Irrational beliefs that take on any form
E.G. believing they are being persecuted, believing they are a historical/religious figure
What can some delusions lead to?
Finding it difficult to begin or keep up with goal-directed activity
What are the 3 signs of avolition according to Andereason?
1) Poor Hygiene/Grooming
2) Lack of persistence at work
3) Lack of energy
Define Speech Poverty
Changes in speech patterns - reduction in amount and quality of speech
Why does the diagnosis of Sz have poor reliability?
Cheniaux concluded that inter-rater reliability was poor b/c they found that one psychiatrist diagnosed 26 people with the DSM and 44 using ICD, while the other diagnosed 13 using DSM and 24 using ICD
So diagnosis relies heavily on interpretation of the psychiatrist so poor reliability
How are there cultural biases in the diagnosis and classification of Sz?
In other cultures, like African ones, hearing voices may be considered as normal b/c of the cultural belief in communicating with ancestors.
This can led to irrational reports of experiences from psychiatrists, especially since it is also thought that White psychiatrists often distrust the honesty of black people during diagnosis