What research provided evidence for the effectiveness of Chlorpromazine for the treatment of Sz?
Reviewed studies that compared the effects of Chlorpromazine to control conditions - results showed that ppts that had Chlorpromazine instead of a placebo functioned better and had reduced symptoms with a lower relapse rate.
What evidence is there for the effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics?
Research found that Clozapine is more effective than typical antipsychotics, and that it was effective in 30-50% of treatment-resistant cases were other antipsychotics failed
The mechanisation of antipsychotics is strongly tied to the dopamine hypothesis.
Why is this a limitation?
The dopamine hypothesis is incomplete - as it states that high levels of dopamine activity in the subcortex leads to Schizophrenia when evidence has suggested that dopamine levels in other parts of the brain are too low rather than too high
How does the incomplete dopamine hypothesis affect the use of antipsychotics?
It suggests that antipsychotics that are Dopamine Antagonists won’t work in reducing Sz symptoms as they reduce levels of Dopamine not increase them.
Antipsychotics can cause serious side effects.
Typical - stiff jaw, dizziness, dyskinesia (involuntary facial movement), NMS (regulation of body systems)
Atypical - patients that take Clozapine need to have regular blood tests, Atypical antipsychotics usually have less side effects and they were developed to reduce the frequency of them.
Why are severe side effects a limitation of antipsychotics?
It limits their reliability and their usage
What is the chemical cosh argument?
The belief that the short term use of antipsychotics may abuse human rights as nurses may use drugs to benefit them by reducing patients to a ‘zombie-like’ state.
Why is the chemical cosh argument a limitation of the use of antipsychotics?
It is seen by some as unethical as the patient may not be in a position where they can consent to the treatment, thus dehumanising the patient as they take away individual personal responsibility and control.