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Flashcards in Diagnostics Deck (77)
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Knowing a patient's serum electrolyte levels, how can you calculate the anion gap?

Anion gap=(Na+K)-(Cl+HCO3)


The combo of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia,and peripheral pitting edema is pathognomic for:

Nephrotic syndrome


Which serum electrolyte abnormality suggested by absence of a P wave on an ECG?



When drawing blood from a ferret for hematologic and biochemical panels, which two venipuncture sites are commonly used that provide the appropriate sample volume (about 1.5 ml)?

The jugular vein and cranial vena cava


Small numbers of Howell-Jolly bodies are a normal finding in which large animal species?



After what approximate period of time from the onset of anemia would you expect a maximum erythropoietic response from the marrow?

7 days


What is the anticoagulant of choice in test tubes used for coagulation testing and blood typing?

Citrate (blue tops)


Which common characteristic of large animal urine can cause a false positive result for urinary protein?

Strongly alkaline urine


Blood zinc levels must be measured on blood drawn specifically into special tubes. Why?

Other tubes have rubber tops that contain zinc, causing falsely elevated results


How can you explain that hyperlactetemic calves have a normal blood lactate measurement?

They predominantly have high circulating d-lactate levels, whereas analyzers measure l-lactate


What is the diagnostic test of choice for leptospirosis in dogs?

Microscopic agglutination test (MAT)


Heat precipitation or electrophoresis of urine is used for detecting which characteristic substance in cases of multiple myeloma?

Bence-Jones proteins


Name 2 reasons of increased anion gap metabolic acidosis

Ethylene glycol toxicity
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Uremic acidosis
Lactic acidosis


What is species specific characteristics of the differential count on the leukogram of cattle and sheep?



Creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are associated with muscle damage in large animals. Which enyzmes has the shorter half-life?

CK (2 hours in horses, 4 hours in cattle)


Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals in dogs: which one is more suggestive of ethylene glycol toxicosis?

Monohydrate-look like picket fence shape; ethylene glycol
Dihydrate-envelope; nutritional or artifact of refrigeration or less commonly ethylene glycol


In sogs, codocytes (target cells), have been specifically linked with the hypercholesterolemia of which endocrine disorder?



The presence of a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) test, pathologic proteinuria, and polyarthritis should lead to the suspicion of this disease

Systemic lupus erythematosus


What is the diagnostic purpose of placing a rebreathing bag over the mouth and nose of a horse?

Optimizes detection of abnormal lung sounds by increasing tidal volume and thereby the velocity of air flow in the large airways


In Horrner's syndrome, how can a lesion be localized pharmacologically to determine if it is preganglionic or postganglionic (of the lower motor neuron portion of the pathway)?

Application of a dilute direct acting sympathomimetic to both eyes reveals minimal pupillary dilation if the lesion is preganglionic, and rapid, marked dilation if the lesion is postganglionic


What is the diagnostic blood test of choice, and the expected abnormality, in a case of oragnophosphate intoxication?

Serum acetylcholinesterase levels
Low levels (


When performing a myelogram, why is cervical myelography rarely of value when severe thoracolumbar cord swelling is present?

With a cervical injection, only the cranial margin of the compressive lesion may be imaged since the contrast medium flows rostrally into the intracranial ventricular system when resistance to caudal flow is encountered


An 8 month old puppy receiving a raw meat based diet shows multi-limb lameness and overall weakness. bloodwork reveals hypocalcemia and increased ALP. Radiographs show widened physes, particularly at the distal ulnae. What the dx?

Rickets, most likely dietary deficiency of vitamin D. Therapy should consist of a regular diet with adequate and not excessive amounts of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D.


What is the anticlinal space and where is it found in the cat and dog?

Narrowest thoracic intevertebral disk space
Between 10-11 thoracic vertebrae
11th is the anticlinal vertebra


Which diagnostic test might produce abnormal results consisting of positive sharp waves and fibrillation potentials?

Electromyography (EMG)
Test used for assessing patients with suspected myopathic or denervation disorders


Your heparinized blood gas sample shows markedly hypernatremia that is inconsistent with the clinical picture. Which error likely occurred when obtaining the sample?

Blood was drawn into sodium heparin rather than lithium heparin


There are 3 modes of echo display in diagnostic ultrasound. A standard abdominal ultrasound would be done in: A, B, or M mode

B mode


Why do band neutrophils quickly appear in the blood during acute inflammation in cattle

small bone marrow reserve of mature neutrophils


Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is also known as

Aseptic necrosis of femoral head


Which two hematologic findings on smears of peripheral blood suggest immune-mediated red blood cell damage?

spherocytosis and agglutinated red blood cells