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1

Name the 4 stages involved in the healing process of a skin graft

1) adherence-starts within the first 8 hours post-op
2) plasmatic imbibition-maximum about 48-72 hours after grafting
3) inosculation
4) penetration and ingrowth of new blood vessels

2

Which specific blood vessels is the most common type of congenital portosystemic shunt in the dog? And in the cat?

Dog: persistent ductus venosus
Cat: left gastric vein

3

Butorphanol administered to horses, loperamide administered to cats and acepromazine administered to dogs, all may cause which type of adverse effect?

Profound excitement/CNS stimulation

4

Name 3 types of transfusion reactions

1) anaphylactic
2) acute hemolytic-pre-existing anti-erythrocyte abs in recipient
3) delayed hemolytic-development of anti-erythrocyte abs over time
4) febrile/bacterial contaminant
5) volume overload
6) citrate toxicosis
7) in vitro hemolytic
8) infectious disease from donor

5

Name 4 conditions that predispose a small animal patient to pulmonary thromboembolism

Angiostrongyliasis
Corticosteroids-exogenous or endogenous
Dirofilarsis
DIC
Heart disease-right atrial enlargement, endocarditis
IMHA
indwelling central venous catheter
Pancreatitis
PLE
renal disease-amyloidosis, glomerulonephritis
Septicemia
Trauma

6

Pharmacologic agents used for delaying parturition are called:

Tocolytics

7

What is the preferred method for preventing leishmaniasis?

Avoidance of exposure to the vector, the sand fly
No vaccine available

8

With respect to hair rubbing against the surface of the cornea: what is the difference between ectopic cilia, distichiasis and trichiasis?

Ectopic cilia: aberrant individual eyelashes arising from meibomian glands and growing through the conjunctiva towards the globe
Distichiasis: presence of an additional row of eyelashes on the eyelid margin, in addition to the normal lashes
Triachiasis: normal facial hair that rubs on the conjunctival or cornea

9

What is a leiomyosarcoma? What is its best recognized paraneoplastic syndrome?

A malignant tumor of the smooth muscle origin
Hypoglycemia

10

What is the meaning of myelophthisic disease?

Disease characteried by bone marrow obliteration/replacement with nonmarrow tissue

11

Which renal syndrome causes renal tubular acidosis, primary urinary loss of glucose, amino acids and phosphate?

Fanconi syndrome

12

How does the toxin of Clostridium tetani cause disinhibition of the extensor motor neurons?

It inteferes with interneuronal release of inhibitor NTs glycine (SC) and GABA (brainstem)

13

what would you give as an antidote to a patient with carbamate intoxication?

Atropine

14

the trapezius muscle is innervated by which nerve?

Accessory nerve (Cranial nerve XI)-dorsal branch

15

What is a tension pneumothorax?

Air in the pleural space, where air continues to enter the pleural space but cannot exit
"one-way valve" effect of lesion causing pneumothorax

16

What is the ECG characteristic that defines first-degree AV block?

prolonged PR interval

17

Streptococci are divided into 3 types based on hemolysis patterns when grown on blood agar plates (alpha-, beta-, and gamma- hemolytic). In which of these 3 categories are most of the pathogenic streptococci?

beta-hemolytic

18

The total lung capacity consists of?

inspiratory reserve volume
expiratory reserve volume
residual volume
tidal volume

19

Two of these gastric acid-reducing drugs also have GI promotility effects. Which ones? Cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, nizatidine

ranitidine
nizatidine

20

the blood supply to the cow's udder comes primarily from which artery?

external pudendal artery

21

Which synthetic absorbable suture material retains tensile strength for the longest period of time?
Polydioxanone (PDS)
Polyglycolic acid
Silk

polydioxanone (PDS)

22

Tissue transplanted from one site to another in the same patient is called an______?

autograft

23

A patient has a HCT of 78%. Which one is correct?
A) the risk of TE is decreased
B) Heart murmur is likely due to hypervicosity
C) renal neoplasm is an important DDx
d) Epo is the best treatment

C) renal neoplasm is an important DDx

24

Suture material with which characteristics should be used in infected wounds?

Sterile mono-filament absorbable (PDS or Maxon) to reduce risk of persistant infection

25

How is a comminuted fracture defined?

it has 2 or more fracture lines
can range from three-piece fx to highly comminuted fx with 5 or more pieces

26

Which product accumulates in stored blood that makes the blood unsuitable for use in patients with hepatic encephalopathy?

ammonium

27

What is glargine?

a long-acting insulin analog and an excellent choice for treating diabetic cats

28

The coagulation factors are numbered from I to XIII. However, there are only 12. Which factor does not exist?

Factor VI (6)

29

The "round ligament of the liver" is a remnant of which fetal structure?

umbilical vein

30

Which protozoal parasite commonly harbored by cats can be linked to infection in the California sea otter?

Toxoplasma gondii