Diaphragm, Respiration, and Pericardium Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy II Exam 2 > Diaphragm, Respiration, and Pericardium > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diaphragm, Respiration, and Pericardium Deck (37):
1

What does the diaphragm separate?

thorax and abdomen

2

Why is the right dome higher than the left dome of the diaphragm?

it overlies the liver

3

What are the two parts of the diaphragm?

muscular and central tendon

4

What are the points of origin of the muscular part of the diaphragm?

sternal: xiphoid process
costal: lower 6 costal cartilages
lumbar: lumbar vertebrae 1-3, medial and lateral arcuate ligaments

5

What are the three openings in the diaphragm?

caval opening, esophageal hiatus, and aortic hiatus

6

What vertebral level is the caval opening and what are its contents?

tv 8 and the inferior vena cava and the right phrenic nerve

7

What is firmly attached to the central tendon around the caval opening and facilitates venous return to heart during inspiration?

inferior vena cava

8

What is the vertebral level of the esophageal hiatus and what are its contents?

tv 10 and the esophagus, and anterior/posterior vagal trunks

9

What is the vertebral level of aortic hiatus and what are its contents?

tv 12 and the aorta, thoracic duct, and the azygos vein

10

What is the blood supply to the diaphragm?

musculophrenic, pericardiacophrenic, superior phrenic, and inferior phrenic arteries

11

What is the innervation to the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve (C3,4,5) and intercostal nerves

12

What causes a hiatial hernia?

weakness in the diaphragmatic wall around the esophageal hiatus

13

What causes a hiatal hernia?

weakness in the diaphragmatic wall around the esophageal hiatus

14

What happens when the upper part of the stomach slides up into the thoracic cavity through the esophageal hiatus?

hiatal hernia

15

What is a major cause of gastroesophageal reflux, including belching and epigastric pain?

hiatal hernia

16

What movement is when the diaphragm contracts, pulling the domes inferiorly into the abdomen, resulting in an increase in the vertical diameter of the thorax?

piston movement

17

Which movement elevates the lower ribs (7-10) about an antero-posterior axis, resulting in an increase in the transverse diameter of the thorax?

bucket handle movement

18

What does the pump handle movement do?

elevates upper ribs (2-6) about a transverse axis, resulting in an increase in antero-posterior diameter of thorax

19

The elevation of the ribs in both the bucket handle and pump handle movements are due to the contraction of what muscles?

external intercostal muscles

20

What happens in normal expiration?

diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax and air is expelled passively

21

What happens in forced expiration?

the internal intercostals, innermost intercostals, and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall contract

22

What happens to the intrathoracic volume and pressure in inspiration?

volume increases, pressure decreases

23

What happens to the intrathoracic volume and pressure in expiration?

volume decreases, pressure increases

24

What happens to the abdominal volume and pressure when the diaphragm is contracted during inspiration?

volume is decreased, pressure increased

25

What are hiccups a result of?

spasmodic contraction of diaphragm

26

What is the pericardium?

fibroserous sac which encloses the heart and great vessels

27

What are the layers of the pericardium?

fibrous pericardium, parietal layer of the serous pericardium, and visceral layer of the serous pericardium

28

What is a potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium that contains serous fluid?

pericardial cavity

29

What is another name for the sternopericardial ligaments that attach the fibrous pericardium to the back of the sternum?

cardiac seat belt

30

What are the layers of the pericardium of the heart?

epicardium, myocardium, endocardium, chambers

31

What is a cardiac temponade?

fluid leaks rapidly into pericardial cavity compressing the heart and superior vena cava making the external jugular veins become enlarged and prominent

32

What are the pericardial sinuses?

transverse pericardial sinus and the oblique pericardial sinus

33

What is the blood supply to the pericardium?

pericardiacophrenic (main supply), bronchial, esophageal, and coronary (visceral layer) arteries

34

What nerves innervate the heart?

phrenic nerve (sensory), sympathetic trunk (vasomotor), and the vagus nerve

35

Where is pericardial pain felt?

behind the sternum, although less sensitive to pain than pleura

36

What is inflammation to the pericardium?

pericarditis (very life threatening)

37

When listening to the heart and holding their breath, what should you hear for percardial friction rub?

The sound will continue when breath is held, if sound stops then it is pleural friction rub