Flashcards in Pleurae and Pleural Cavities Deck (30):
What type of pleura lines the inner surface of the thorax?
What are the three smaller cavities the thoracic cavity is subdivided into?
2 pleural cavities and mediastinum
What type of pleura intimately invests in the lung?
What is a potential space between the parietal and visceral pleurae?
What lubricates the pleurae to minimize friction between the parietal and visceral layers, and facilitates movement of the lungs?
pleural fluid (serous)
What are the parts of the parietal pleura?
costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, and cervical
What is the space formed where the costal and diaphragmatic pleurae meet?
What is the space formed where the costal and medialstinal pleurae meet?
When fluid accumulates in the costodiaphragmatic recess, how is it removed?
thoracentesis, at upper border of intercostal space 9 during expiration
What supplies the parietal pleura with blood?
intercostal arteries, internal thoracic artery, and superior phrenic artery
What does visceral pleura get its blood supply from?
What does parietal pleura get its nerve supply from?
intercostal, subcostal, and phrenic nerves
highly sensitive to pain!
What does visceral pleura get its nerve supply from?
no where! insensitive to pain
What is pneumothorax?
pleural cavity fills with air
What are the causes of pneumothorax?
trauma (sucking chest wound), disease, and congenital weak spots
How is tension pneumothorax different from pneumothorax?
instead of a hole that allows air into cavity, a flap is present on visceral pleura
What does the pleura do during tension pneumothorax?
inflates like an innertube, pushing mediastinum to opposite side and compressing other lung
What is hemothorax?
pleural cavity fills with blood
What is it called when the pleural cavity fills with both blood and air simultaneously?
What is it called when there is an inflammation of pleura which leads to adhesions between parietal and visceral pleura?
What nerves and areas are associated with pleuritis?
the phrenic nerve (C3,4,5) to the shoulder and the supraclavicular nerve (C3,4)
Sound known as pleural friction rub that can be heard by auscultation is cause by what?
What does the mediastinum not contain in the thorax?
lungs and pleurae
Where does the mediastinum divide into the superior and inferior subdivisions?
thoracic vertebrae 4 and 5
Why is the sternal angle an important landmark?
boundary between superior/inferior mediastinum, articulation of the second rib with the sternum, aortic arch, bifurcation of the trachea into the left and right main bronchi, and upper border of the pulmonary trunk
What are the contents of the superior mediastinum?
superior vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, arch of the aorta, thoracic duct, trachea, esophagus, thymus, vagus nerve, left recurrent laryngeal nerve, and phrenic nerve
What are the subdivisions of the inferior mediastinum?
anterior, middle, and posterior mediastinum
What are the contents of the anterior mediastinum?
thymus, lymph nodes, and sternopericardial ligaments
What are the contents of the middle mediastinum?
heart, pericardium, roots of the great vessels, main bronchi, and phrenic nerve