Flashcards in Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs Deck (51):
What prevents the trachea from collapsing?
the 15 to 20 cartilaginous rings that are open posteriorly
What covers the posterior opening/gap of the trachea?
the trachealis muscle
Where does the trachea bifurcate into the right and left main bronchi?
sternal angle (IV disc between TV 4 and 5)
What is the prominent ridge located within the trachea at its bifurcation, which separates the openings of the right and left main bronchi?
Which main bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the other?
the right main bronchus
The right main bronchus branches into how many lobar bronchi and segmental bronchi?
3 lobar bronchi and 10 segmental bronchi
Where does the trachea begin?
inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (cervical vertebra 6)
Which main bronchus is longer, narrower, and more horizontal than the other?
left main bronchus
The left main bronchus divides into how many lobar bronchi and segmental bronchi?
2 lobar bronchi and 10 segmental bronchi
If a foreign object is aspirated, where will it usually enter and why?
the right main bronchus due to its wide, short, and vertical arrangement
What is the carina covered with and what does it initiate?
sensitive mucous membrane and it initiates the cough reflex
What is the blood supply to the trachea?
inferior thyroid artery and bronchial arteries
What is the innervation of the trachea?
vagus nerve (parasympathetic and pain fibers) and the sympathetic trunk
What are the surfaces of the lungs?
costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic
What are the borders of the lung?
anterior, posterior, inferior
What are the orientations for the lung?
anterior border is sharp and thin, posterior border is broad and rounded
What is on the mediastinal surface of the lung that is the opening through which the vessels, nerves and bronchi pass?
What structures form the root of the lung?
bronchi, pulmonary vessels (arteries superior, veins inferior), bronchial vessels, nerves and lymphatics
Which lung has an oblique fissure and a horizontal fissure?
What are the lobes of the right lung?
Superior, middle and inferior
What characteristics are on the right lung?
Groove for azygos vein, groove for esophagus, cardiac impression, groove for superior vena cava, and groove for right brachiocephalic vein
Which lung has only an oblique fissure?
What are the lobes of the left lung?
Superior and inferior lobes
What characteristics are on the left lung?
Lingula, cardiac notch, cardiac impression, groove for aorta, and groove for left subclavian artery
What are the functional units of the lung?
What does the bronchopulmonary segments consist of?
segmental bronchus, branch of the pulmonary artery, segment of lung tissue, and surrounding septum
Why are bronchopulmonary segments clinically significant?
they can be surgically removed without affecting the functioning of adjacent segments
What is the blood supply to the lungs?
arterial: bronchial arteries
venous: bronchial veins
What are the structural levels of the tracheobronchial tree?
trachea, main bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
What is the primary tissue of the trachea and main bronchi?
What is the primary tissue of the lobar bronchi?
What structural levels have primary tissue made up of smooth muscles?
segmental bronchi and bronchioles
What is the primary tissue of alveoli?
thin permeable membrane
What is inflammation of the segmental bronchi?
What is inflammation of bronchioles?
What is pneumonia?
inflammation of the alveoli
What are the structures that lie in front of and behind the root of the lung and are formed from vagus and sympathetic trunk fibers?
anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses
What does sympathetic activation produce in the lungs?
bronchial dilation, vasoconstriction and decreases glandular secretion
What activation results in bronchial constriction, vasodilation and increased glandular secretion?
What is asthma?
obstructive airway disease characterized by coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing
What is asthma caused by?
spasms of smooth muscle which lies in the segmental bronchi and bronchioles
What are the two types of asthma and what are they triggered by?
extrinsic: by allergens
intrinsic: by non-allergic stimuli such as stress, cold, or exercise
What can often help alleviate asthma?
adjustments to the upper thoracics (T2-5) and sometimes T9-11 (because of the adrenal medulla, which produces epinephrine, a potent vasodilator)
Lymph from the lungs drain into what nodes located in the hilum?
pulmonary and bronchopulmonary nodes that drain into the tracheobronchial nodes
What is the effect that moves dirt and mucous out of the larynx that can be damaged by smoking?
When mucociliary clearance is damaged from smoking what does it cause?
What is another name for lung cancer that is a primary tumor of the bronchus?
What nerve can be affected by lung cancer at the apex of the lung and results in paralysis of half of the larynx?
recurrent laryngeal nerve
What happens when the phrenic nerve is damaged from lung cancer?
paralysis of half of the diaphragm
What can cause an enlargement of a sentinel node?