Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy II Exam 2 > Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs Deck (51):
1

What prevents the trachea from collapsing?

the 15 to 20 cartilaginous rings that are open posteriorly

2

What covers the posterior opening/gap of the trachea?

the trachealis muscle

3

Where does the trachea bifurcate into the right and left main bronchi?

sternal angle (IV disc between TV 4 and 5)

4

What is the prominent ridge located within the trachea at its bifurcation, which separates the openings of the right and left main bronchi?

carina

5

Which main bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical than the other?

the right main bronchus

6

The right main bronchus branches into how many lobar bronchi and segmental bronchi?

3 lobar bronchi and 10 segmental bronchi

7

Where does the trachea begin?

inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (cervical vertebra 6)

8

Which main bronchus is longer, narrower, and more horizontal than the other?

left main bronchus

9

The left main bronchus divides into how many lobar bronchi and segmental bronchi?

2 lobar bronchi and 10 segmental bronchi

10

If a foreign object is aspirated, where will it usually enter and why?

the right main bronchus due to its wide, short, and vertical arrangement

11

What is the carina covered with and what does it initiate?

sensitive mucous membrane and it initiates the cough reflex

12

What is the blood supply to the trachea?

inferior thyroid artery and bronchial arteries

13

What is the innervation of the trachea?

vagus nerve (parasympathetic and pain fibers) and the sympathetic trunk

14

What are the surfaces of the lungs?

base, apex...
costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic

15

What are the borders of the lung?

anterior, posterior, inferior

16

What are the orientations for the lung?

anterior border is sharp and thin, posterior border is broad and rounded

17

What is on the mediastinal surface of the lung that is the opening through which the vessels, nerves and bronchi pass?

hilum

18

What structures form the root of the lung?

bronchi, pulmonary vessels (arteries superior, veins inferior), bronchial vessels, nerves and lymphatics

19

Which lung has an oblique fissure and a horizontal fissure?

right lung

20

What are the lobes of the right lung?

Superior, middle and inferior

21

What characteristics are on the right lung?

Groove for azygos vein, groove for esophagus, cardiac impression, groove for superior vena cava, and groove for right brachiocephalic vein

22

Which lung has only an oblique fissure?

Left lung

23

What are the lobes of the left lung?

Superior and inferior lobes

24

What characteristics are on the left lung?

Lingula, cardiac notch, cardiac impression, groove for aorta, and groove for left subclavian artery

25

What are the functional units of the lung?

bronchopulmonary segments

26

What does the bronchopulmonary segments consist of?

segmental bronchus, branch of the pulmonary artery, segment of lung tissue, and surrounding septum

27

Why are bronchopulmonary segments clinically significant?

they can be surgically removed without affecting the functioning of adjacent segments

28

What is the blood supply to the lungs?

arterial: bronchial arteries
venous: bronchial veins

29

What are the structural levels of the tracheobronchial tree?

trachea, main bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

30

What is the primary tissue of the trachea and main bronchi?

cartilaginous rings

31

What is the primary tissue of the lobar bronchi?

cartilaginous plates

32

What structural levels have primary tissue made up of smooth muscles?

segmental bronchi and bronchioles

33

What is the primary tissue of alveoli?

thin permeable membrane

34

What is inflammation of the segmental bronchi?

bronchitis

35

What is inflammation of bronchioles?

bronchiolitis

36

What is pneumonia?

inflammation of the alveoli

37

What are the structures that lie in front of and behind the root of the lung and are formed from vagus and sympathetic trunk fibers?

anterior and posterior pulmonary plexuses

38

What does sympathetic activation produce in the lungs?

bronchial dilation, vasoconstriction and decreases glandular secretion

39

What activation results in bronchial constriction, vasodilation and increased glandular secretion?

parasympathetic

40

What is asthma?

obstructive airway disease characterized by coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing

41

What is asthma caused by?

spasms of smooth muscle which lies in the segmental bronchi and bronchioles

42

What are the two types of asthma and what are they triggered by?

extrinsic: by allergens
intrinsic: by non-allergic stimuli such as stress, cold, or exercise

43

What can often help alleviate asthma?

adjustments to the upper thoracics (T2-5) and sometimes T9-11 (because of the adrenal medulla, which produces epinephrine, a potent vasodilator)

44

Lymph from the lungs drain into what nodes located in the hilum?

pulmonary and bronchopulmonary nodes that drain into the tracheobronchial nodes

45

What is the effect that moves dirt and mucous out of the larynx that can be damaged by smoking?

mucociliary clearance

46

When mucociliary clearance is damaged from smoking what does it cause?

smokers cough

47

What is another name for lung cancer that is a primary tumor of the bronchus?

bronchogenic carcinoma

48

What nerve can be affected by lung cancer at the apex of the lung and results in paralysis of half of the larynx?

recurrent laryngeal nerve

49

What happens when the phrenic nerve is damaged from lung cancer?

paralysis of half of the diaphragm

50

What can cause an enlargement of a sentinel node?

bronchogenic carcinoma

51

Where can bronchogenic carcinoma refer pain to?

upper or middle thoracic cord segments because both sympathetic and vagal fibers contain sensory fibers