Flashcards in Heart Deck (78):
What are the four chambers of the heart?
right and left atrium, right and left ventricle
What is the circulation of blood through the heart?
inferior/superior vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta
What is a pulmonary embolism?
obstruction of a pulmonary artery by a blood clot
Where does a blood clot for a pulmonary embolism usually form?
the systemic venous system
What does a pulmonary embolism lead to?
acute respiratory distress, dilation of right ventricle and atrium, heart failure and death
What does each valve consist of?
valve orifice, fibrous ring, cusps
What are the four major valves of the heart?
pulmonary valve, aortic valve, mitral valve, and tricuspid valve
Which valve is between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk and has three cusps (anterior, left, and right)?
What is the aortic valve between?
the left ventricle and aorta (three cusps: left, right, and posterior)
What valve is between the left atrium and left ventricle and has two cusps (anterior and posterior)?
mitral (bicsupid) valve
What is the tricuspid valve between?
the right atrium and right ventricle (three cusps: anterior, posterior, and septal)
What is another name for the mitral and tricuspid valves?
left and right atrioventricular valves
What makes the lub sound?
contraction of the ventricles and closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves
What produces the dub sound?
closure of the pulmonary and aortic valves
Where is the auscultation point for the pulmonary valve?
behind the medial end of the third left costal cartilage, most audible over the left second intercostal space
Which valve auscultation point is located behind the left half of the sternum medial to the third intercostal space, most audible over the right second intercostal space?
Which valves auscultation point is located behind the let half of the sternum medial to the fourth costal cartilage, most audible over the left fifth intercostal space at the midclavicular line?
Why cant you hear the valves right over the place where they are located in the body?
formation of bone, orientation of the heart, and acoustics of blood flow to the spot of ausculation
Where is the auscultation point for the tricuspid valve?
behind the right half of the sternum medial to the fourth intercostal space, most audible over the left fifth intercostal space at its border with the sternum
What are the boundaries of the heart?
base (left and right atria)
apex (fifth intercostal space, left ventricle)
What are the surfaces of the heart?
anterior, diaphragmatic, left pulmonary, and right pulmonary
What structure of the right atrium is an ear-like appendage from the superior aspect of the right atrium?
What are prominent parallel ridges located in the anterior right atrial wall?
What divides the heart into right and left halves?
What is a vertical muscular ridge which runs from the opening of the superior vena cava to that of the inferior vena cava, marking the termination of the pectinate muscles and separating the right atrium proper from the sinus of venae cavae?
What is the smooth-walled area located posterior to the crista terminalis that represents the embryonic sinus venosus and receives the openings of the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, and anterior veins of the right ventricle?
sinus of the venae cavae
What is a depression which is the remnant of the foramen ovale?
What is the sharp border of the fossa ovalis?
limbus fossa ovalis
What is an atrial septal defect?
foramen ovale persists as a small opening in the superior part of the fossa ovalis
In an atrial septal defect, blood is shunted from the left atrium to the right atrium causing dilation to what?
right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary trunk
What are the openings in the right atrium?
superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, anterior veins of right ventricle, right ventricle (through the tricuspid valve)
What are the interconnecting muscular ridges located in the ventricular wall?
What are the cone-shaped muscles which originate from the ventricular wall that are connected to the chordae tendineae?
What are the papillary muscles in the right ventricle?
anterior, posterior, and septal
What attaches the papillary muscles to the borders of the cusps tricuspid valve and prevent eversion of the valve during ventricular contraction?
What is the upper portion of the right ventricle which ends in the pulmonary trunk?
What is a thick, muscular ridge which separates the conus arteriosus from the rest of the right ventricle?
What is the large trabecula which extends from the interventricular septum to the base of the anterior papillary muscle and transmits the right bundle branch of the conduction system?
septomarginal trabecula (moderator band)
What are the openings in the right ventricle?
right atrium (through the tricuspid valve)
pulmonary trunk (through the pulmonary valve)
What is the ear-like appendage of the left atrium?
What muscle is hardly found in the left atrium because it is mostly smooth?
What are the openings of the left atrium?
left ventricle (through the mitral valve)
What are the finer and more numerous fibers in the left ventricle compared to the right ventricle?
What are the papillary muscles of the left ventricle?
anterior and posterior
What attaches the papillary muscles to the cusps of the mitral valve in the left ventricle?
What is the smooth-walled portion of the left ventricle below the cusps of the aortic valve?
What are the openings in the left ventricle?
left atrium (through the mitral valve)
aorta (through the aortic valve)
What are the parts of the septal wall?
interatrial, atrioventricular, membranous interventricular, and muscular interventricular septums
What are the two ways the heart can become enlarged?
muscular hypertrophy and dilation of a chamber
What happens during muscular hypertrophy of the heart?
the elasticity of blood vessels is lost with age (especially with atherosclerosis and hypertension), more force is required to pump the blood through the veins and the heart grows thicker to compensate for this
What is dilation of a chamber due to?
septal defects and valve incompetency
What is the most common incompetent valve in the heart?
What do the pulmonary and aortic valves not have in comparison to the mitral and tricuspid valves?
chordae tendineae and papillary muscles
Which valves open during contraction?
semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic valves)
Which valves close during contraction?
atrioventricular valves (mitral and tricuspid)
What do the pulmonary and aortic valves each consist of?
three semilunar cusps with nodules, lunules, and sinuses (pulmonary and aortic)
What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart composed of?
fibrous rings (anuli), left and right fibrous trigones, and membranous part of the septal wall
What are the parts of the membranous part of the septal wall?
interatrial septum, atrioventricular septum, and membranous interventricular septum
What are the functions of the membranous part of the septal wall?
provide structural framework for valves and insulate the electrical impulses of the conduction system within the atrial wall from those within the ventricular wall
What low pressure system supplies the heart with blood?
right and left coronary arteries
What are the branches of the coronary artery?
sinuatrial nodal artery, right marginal, and posterior interventricular arteries
What is it called when the right coronary artery dips under the muscle of the heart?
myocardial bridge (10% of cases result in ischemia)
What artery covers the greater part of the heart?
left coronary artery
What are the branches of the left coronary artery?
anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries
left marginal artery comes off of circumflex artery
What artery is the most common site for a heart attack?
anterior interventricular artery
Which artery comes off of the circumflex artery in 30% of the population?
posterior interventricular artery
Which side usually has coronary dominance?
right coronary dominance
What does the right coronary artery usually supply?
right atrium, most of right ventricle, diaphragmatic surface of left ventricle, posterior 1/3 of interventricular septum, and the conduction system
What does the left coronary artery usually supply?
left atrium, most of left ventricle, part of right ventricle, and anterior 2/3 of interventricular septum
Where do the coronary artery anastomoses occur?
right coronary and circumflex arteries
anterior and posterior interventricular arteries
What drains the heart?
coronary sinus, anterior veins of right ventricle, and venae cordis minimae
What are the five tributaries of the coronary sinus?
great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, small cardiac vein, posterior vein of the left ventricle, oblique vein of left atrium
What is atherosclerosis?
deposition of lipid plaques on the inner walls of arteries that results in narrowing of the lumen
What is substernal chest pain upon exertion that is a symptom of partial occlusion of coronary artery branches?
What are the smallest veins of the heart that run within the walls of the heart and drain primarily into the right atrium?
venae cordis minimae
What happens when a coronary artery branch becomes completely occluded?
What are the most common sites of a myocardial infarction?
anterior interventricular artery, right coronary artery, and circumflex artery