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Flashcards in Digestion/respiratory Deck (94):
1

A 30 foot tube that runs from her mouth to our anus

Also consist of accessory organs and glands

Alignmentary canal

2

What organs does the gastrointestinal tract referred to?

The stomach and intestines

3

What organs do the digestive system consist of?

It consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, and accessory organs

4

What do the accessory organs include in the body?

Teeth, tongue, salivary gland's, liver, pancreas, gallbladder

5

What is the function of the digestive system?

To process food, extract nutrients from food, and eliminate residue

6

What are the four stages that allow for the function of the digestive system?

Ingestion
Digestion
Absorption
Defecation

7

Does the digestion stage consist of mechanical or chemical digestion?

Both

8

This type of digestion uses teeth and stomach to digest food

Shreds and breaks food into smaller pieces


Mechanical digestion

9

Makes use of digestive enzymes – proteins

Breaks down the food into its individual nutritional components

Digestive enzymes split individual glucose molecules off the starch molecules

Chemical digestion

10

The digestive tract is composed of a long tube referred to as what?

Alimentary canal

11

The alimentary Canal consists of what four layers?

Serosa
Muscularis externa
Submucosa
Mucosa

12

This is the innermost layer of the alimentary tube.

It consist of three layers of its own of epithelium, connective tissue, and smooth muscle

Mucosa

13

This is the thickest layer of connective tissue of the tube.

It contains glands, blood vessels, lymph Fattic vessels, and nerves

Submucosa

14

This part of the tube consists of two layers of smooth muscle

This layer regularly contracts and relaxes to propel food through the digestive tract



Muscularis

15

This is the outermost layer of the tube
It covers the portion of the digestive track within the cavity.

Serosa

16

The outer covering of the esophagus and rectum is called what?

Adventitia

17

Main function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with what?

To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of the waste products – carbon dioxide

18

Part of the body do we rely on to supply the body with oxygen and to dispose of waste products such as carbon dioxide?

The cardiovascular and muscle system

19

This is the process of transporting oxygen into internal cells of the body and removing carbon dioxide from the body

It is involved in speech and smell

It is dependent upon breathing and moving air in and out of the lungs

Respiration

20

The respiratory system is divided into the what to systems?

Upper respiratory system and lower respiratory system

21

The upper respiratory system is composed of what?

Composed of structures located outside the thoracic cavity

Nose, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus
LarynX
Pharynx

22

The lower respiratory system is composed of what?

Composed of structures located inside the thoracic cavity

Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveolar sacs

23

This is the mechanics of breathing that involves the process of moving air into and out of the lungs?

Pulmonary ventilation/respiration

24

Pulmonary ventilation /Respiration consist of what to phases?

Inspiration
Expiration

25

Pulmonary ventilation is a process that involves what to create a pressure difference from inside of the lungs to the atmosphere?

Respiratory muscles

26

Process of gas exchange that occur depends upon what?

The breathing process and the partial pressures of gases

27

The process of gas exchange involves what organs? And element

Blood vessels, red blood cells, lungs, air

28

Need oxygen in our bodies to produce what?

ATP – energy

29

What are the functions of the nose and nasal cavity in the upper respiratory system?

– Provides an airway for respiration
– Filters and cleans the incoming air
– Moisten and warms the incoming air
– Houses the sensory receptors for smell
– Assist in speech production

30

The olfactory nerve is responsible for what sense?

Where is it located?

The sense of smell

It penetrates upper nasal cavity and leads to the brain

31

What is the function of the sphenoid sinus,paranasal sinus and ethmoidal sinus ?

Drain mucus into the nasal cavity

32

These bonds create narrow passages, ensuring that moist air contacts the mucous membrane on the way through.

Conchae

33

This is a tube that connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx and esophagus

Commonly referred to as the throat

Lined with the respiratory epithelium

Pharynx

34

THe pharynx is divided into three regions?

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

35

This extends from the back of the soft palate

It contains openings for the right and left auditory tubes

Nasopharynx

36

This is the space between the soft palate in the base of the tongue

It contains the Palitine tonsils as well as the lingual tonsils found at the base of the tongue

Oropharynx

37

This passes to the upper side of the Larynx and connects to the Esophagus

Laryngopharynx

38

This is commonly referred to as the voicebox

LarynX

39

How big is the LarynX and what bone is it attached to?

About two inches

Attached to the hyoid bone

40

What are the three main functions of the LarynX

-Provide an opening for air to reach the Lungs
-Make sure food and air go to the correct passageways
-Voice production

41

This closes over the top of the LarynX next during swallowing to direct food and liquids into the esophagus

This is the uppermost cartilage

Epiglottis

42

This is the largest piece of cartilage and is also known as the Adams apple

Thyroid cartilage

43

Two pairs of folds that play no role in speech

They Close the glottis which is the opening between the vocal cords, during swallowing to keep food and liquids out of the airway

Vestibular folds

44

produce sound when air passes over them

Vocal cords

45

This is the opening between the cords

Glottis

46

The flexible projection that extends from the base of the tongue

Projects upward when breathing

Epiglottis

47

What does the lower respiratory system consist of?

Trachea
Lungs
Alveolar sacs
Bronchi and bronchioles

48

Is commonly referred to as the windpipe

Trachea

49

How many inches long is the trachea and how many rings of cartilage is it supported by?

4 inches long
3/4 inch in diameter
16-20 cartilage rings

50

The trachea has cells that are lined with Cilia and secrete mucus

What does the mucus and cilia do for the trachea?

The mucus traps in coming particles in the breeze

The Cilia beat and push mucus up towards the throat

51

The trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi.
Where does the primary bronchi enter the lungs?

The hilum

52

Once inside the lungs the primary bronchi divide into where?

Secondary bronchi

53

The secondary bronchi divide and branch further into where?

Then divide and branch further eventually into what?

Tertiary bronchi


Bronchioles and eventually terminal bronchioles

54

What is the C shaped rings of cartilage that encircled the trachea do for it?

It reinforces it and keeps it from collapsing during inhalation

55

The trachea extends from the LarynX next to a cartilage ridge called what?

Carnia

56

At the Carina the trachea branches into how many primary bronchi ?

Two

Secondary
Tertiary bronchi

57

This is the primary structure for gas exchange

Aveolar sacs

58

Bronchioles end into what?

What does it look like?

Aveolar (air) sacs and aveoli

Grape clusters

59

The exchange of air occurs through what membrane?

Respiratory membrane

60

What consists of the respiratory membrane?

Aveolar epithelium, the capillary endothelium, in their joint basement membranes

61

This part of the long is shorter brighter and larger than the other one

Right lung

62

The right lung has how many lobes?

Three

The superior, middle, and inferior

63

What percent of the gas exchange does the right lung handle ?

55%

64

The right lung contains what two fissures?

Horizontal
Oblique fissures

65

The base of each long rest on what?

The diaphragm

66

The top or apex of each long extends about how many inches above the first rib?

.5 inches

67

How many lobes does the left lung contain and What is the reason for this?

Two
Because the heart extends towards the left lung

68

How many fissures does the left lung contain and what are they?

One -Oblique fissures

69

This is a thin connective tissue double layer covering around the lungs.

What are the two layers ?

Pleurae

( visceral and parietal)

70

What does the fluid between the two layers of pleura do for the lungs?

What is it called?

Called the pleural cavity

Allows lungs to expand without friction. (Lubricates the surfaces )

Helps in the breathing mechanism (assists in lung inflation)

71

This pleura covers the surface of the lungs, extending into the fissures

Visceral pleura

72

This Pleura lines the entire thoracic cavity

Parietal pleura

73

This is referred to as breathing and consists of two phases?

Pulmonary ventilation

Consists of two phases called inspiration and expiration

74

Breathing is a mechanical process that depends on what?

Volume changes in thoracic cavity that changes the pressure

75

At what point does air rush into the lungs?

When Air pressure inside of lungs become lower than external atmospheric air pressure

76

What happens when pressure inside becomes higher than external atmospheric pressure?

Air rushes out

77

This is the pressure exerted upon the body by gases surrounding the body

Atmospheric pressure

78

This is the pressure inside the lungs, specifically alveoli

Intrapulmonary pressure

79

Can thoracic volume increase and decrease?

Yes

80

The Lungs contain what tissue so they can stretch and then recoil back to their original size

Elastic tissue

81

For inspiration and expiration to occur there must be what changes to the lungs?

Volume changes to the lungs which causes pressure changes in the lungs
(intrapulmonary pressure)

82

Volume change within the lungs is dependent on what muscles?

Respiratory muscle

Diaphragm and intercostal muscles are primary

83

Inspiration

These muscles pull the ribs upward and outward widening the thoracic cavity

External intercoastal

84

Inspiration

Help elevate the ribs

Internal intercostals

85

Inspiration

This contract flattens drops pressing the abdominal organs down ward and enlarging the thoracic cavity

Diaphragm

86

Expiration

These muscles pull the ribs down word as the external intercostals relax

Internal intercoastal

87

Expiration

This relaxes bulging upward and pressing against the base of the Longs reducing the size of the thoracic cavity

Air is pushed out of the lungs

Diaphragm

88

For air to travel into the lungs the intrapulmonary pressure must become higher or lower than the atmospheric pressure?

Lower

89

The long volume must increase or decrease to reduce the overall pressure within the lungs?

Increase

90

What respiratory muscles create this increase volume?

Diaphragm and intercoastal muscles

91

When these muscles contract, they pull on the pleura of the lungs and cause the lung tissue to do what?

This causes an increase or decrease of lung volume?

It causes the lung tissue to expand in the Thoracic cavity

Causes an increase of lung volume

92

Where to travel out of the ones that intrapulmonary pressure must become higher or lower than the atmospheric pressure?

Higher

93

The respiratory muscles relax causing the ones to do what?

Recoil back to the original size

94

How is Air Force out of the lungs?

The volume decreases causing an increase of intrapulmonary pressure higher than atmospheric pressure