Flashcards in Digestion/respiratory Deck (94):
A 30 foot tube that runs from her mouth to our anus
Also consist of accessory organs and glands
What organs does the gastrointestinal tract referred to?
The stomach and intestines
What organs do the digestive system consist of?
It consists of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, and accessory organs
What do the accessory organs include in the body?
Teeth, tongue, salivary gland's, liver, pancreas, gallbladder
What is the function of the digestive system?
To process food, extract nutrients from food, and eliminate residue
What are the four stages that allow for the function of the digestive system?
Does the digestion stage consist of mechanical or chemical digestion?
This type of digestion uses teeth and stomach to digest food
Shreds and breaks food into smaller pieces
Makes use of digestive enzymes – proteins
Breaks down the food into its individual nutritional components
Digestive enzymes split individual glucose molecules off the starch molecules
The digestive tract is composed of a long tube referred to as what?
The alimentary Canal consists of what four layers?
This is the innermost layer of the alimentary tube.
It consist of three layers of its own of epithelium, connective tissue, and smooth muscle
This is the thickest layer of connective tissue of the tube.
It contains glands, blood vessels, lymph Fattic vessels, and nerves
This part of the tube consists of two layers of smooth muscle
This layer regularly contracts and relaxes to propel food through the digestive tract
This is the outermost layer of the tube
It covers the portion of the digestive track within the cavity.
The outer covering of the esophagus and rectum is called what?
Main function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with what?
To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of the waste products – carbon dioxide
Part of the body do we rely on to supply the body with oxygen and to dispose of waste products such as carbon dioxide?
The cardiovascular and muscle system
This is the process of transporting oxygen into internal cells of the body and removing carbon dioxide from the body
It is involved in speech and smell
It is dependent upon breathing and moving air in and out of the lungs
The respiratory system is divided into the what to systems?
Upper respiratory system and lower respiratory system
The upper respiratory system is composed of what?
Composed of structures located outside the thoracic cavity
Nose, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus
The lower respiratory system is composed of what?
Composed of structures located inside the thoracic cavity
This is the mechanics of breathing that involves the process of moving air into and out of the lungs?
Pulmonary ventilation /Respiration consist of what to phases?
Pulmonary ventilation is a process that involves what to create a pressure difference from inside of the lungs to the atmosphere?
Process of gas exchange that occur depends upon what?
The breathing process and the partial pressures of gases
The process of gas exchange involves what organs? And element
Blood vessels, red blood cells, lungs, air
Need oxygen in our bodies to produce what?
ATP – energy
What are the functions of the nose and nasal cavity in the upper respiratory system?
– Provides an airway for respiration
– Filters and cleans the incoming air
– Moisten and warms the incoming air
– Houses the sensory receptors for smell
– Assist in speech production
The olfactory nerve is responsible for what sense?
Where is it located?
The sense of smell
It penetrates upper nasal cavity and leads to the brain
What is the function of the sphenoid sinus,paranasal sinus and ethmoidal sinus ?
Drain mucus into the nasal cavity
These bonds create narrow passages, ensuring that moist air contacts the mucous membrane on the way through.
This is a tube that connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the larynx and esophagus
Commonly referred to as the throat
Lined with the respiratory epithelium
THe pharynx is divided into three regions?
This extends from the back of the soft palate
It contains openings for the right and left auditory tubes
This is the space between the soft palate in the base of the tongue
It contains the Palitine tonsils as well as the lingual tonsils found at the base of the tongue
This passes to the upper side of the Larynx and connects to the Esophagus
This is commonly referred to as the voicebox
How big is the LarynX and what bone is it attached to?
About two inches
Attached to the hyoid bone
What are the three main functions of the LarynX
-Provide an opening for air to reach the Lungs
-Make sure food and air go to the correct passageways
This closes over the top of the LarynX next during swallowing to direct food and liquids into the esophagus
This is the uppermost cartilage
This is the largest piece of cartilage and is also known as the Adams apple
Two pairs of folds that play no role in speech
They Close the glottis which is the opening between the vocal cords, during swallowing to keep food and liquids out of the airway
produce sound when air passes over them
This is the opening between the cords
The flexible projection that extends from the base of the tongue
Projects upward when breathing
What does the lower respiratory system consist of?
Bronchi and bronchioles
Is commonly referred to as the windpipe
How many inches long is the trachea and how many rings of cartilage is it supported by?
4 inches long
3/4 inch in diameter
16-20 cartilage rings
The trachea has cells that are lined with Cilia and secrete mucus
What does the mucus and cilia do for the trachea?
The mucus traps in coming particles in the breeze
The Cilia beat and push mucus up towards the throat
The trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi.
Where does the primary bronchi enter the lungs?
Once inside the lungs the primary bronchi divide into where?
The secondary bronchi divide and branch further into where?
Then divide and branch further eventually into what?
Bronchioles and eventually terminal bronchioles
What is the C shaped rings of cartilage that encircled the trachea do for it?
It reinforces it and keeps it from collapsing during inhalation
The trachea extends from the LarynX next to a cartilage ridge called what?
At the Carina the trachea branches into how many primary bronchi ?
This is the primary structure for gas exchange
Bronchioles end into what?
What does it look like?
Aveolar (air) sacs and aveoli
The exchange of air occurs through what membrane?
What consists of the respiratory membrane?
Aveolar epithelium, the capillary endothelium, in their joint basement membranes
This part of the long is shorter brighter and larger than the other one
The right lung has how many lobes?
The superior, middle, and inferior
What percent of the gas exchange does the right lung handle ?
The right lung contains what two fissures?
The base of each long rest on what?
The top or apex of each long extends about how many inches above the first rib?
How many lobes does the left lung contain and What is the reason for this?
Because the heart extends towards the left lung
How many fissures does the left lung contain and what are they?
One -Oblique fissures
This is a thin connective tissue double layer covering around the lungs.
What are the two layers ?
( visceral and parietal)
What does the fluid between the two layers of pleura do for the lungs?
What is it called?
Called the pleural cavity
Allows lungs to expand without friction. (Lubricates the surfaces )
Helps in the breathing mechanism (assists in lung inflation)
This pleura covers the surface of the lungs, extending into the fissures
This Pleura lines the entire thoracic cavity
This is referred to as breathing and consists of two phases?
Consists of two phases called inspiration and expiration
Breathing is a mechanical process that depends on what?
Volume changes in thoracic cavity that changes the pressure
At what point does air rush into the lungs?
When Air pressure inside of lungs become lower than external atmospheric air pressure
What happens when pressure inside becomes higher than external atmospheric pressure?
Air rushes out
This is the pressure exerted upon the body by gases surrounding the body
This is the pressure inside the lungs, specifically alveoli
Can thoracic volume increase and decrease?
The Lungs contain what tissue so they can stretch and then recoil back to their original size
For inspiration and expiration to occur there must be what changes to the lungs?
Volume changes to the lungs which causes pressure changes in the lungs
Volume change within the lungs is dependent on what muscles?
Diaphragm and intercostal muscles are primary
These muscles pull the ribs upward and outward widening the thoracic cavity
Help elevate the ribs
This contract flattens drops pressing the abdominal organs down ward and enlarging the thoracic cavity
These muscles pull the ribs down word as the external intercostals relax
This relaxes bulging upward and pressing against the base of the Longs reducing the size of the thoracic cavity
Air is pushed out of the lungs
For air to travel into the lungs the intrapulmonary pressure must become higher or lower than the atmospheric pressure?
The long volume must increase or decrease to reduce the overall pressure within the lungs?
What respiratory muscles create this increase volume?
Diaphragm and intercoastal muscles
When these muscles contract, they pull on the pleura of the lungs and cause the lung tissue to do what?
This causes an increase or decrease of lung volume?
It causes the lung tissue to expand in the Thoracic cavity
Causes an increase of lung volume
Where to travel out of the ones that intrapulmonary pressure must become higher or lower than the atmospheric pressure?
The respiratory muscles relax causing the ones to do what?
Recoil back to the original size