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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (74):
1

The urinary system filters about how many liters of fluid from her body each day?

200 L

2

Extracts waste products, toxins, excess of compounds and acts ad as a water purifier

Urinary system

3

Urinary system consists of what four things?

Two kidneys
Two ureters
Urinary bladder
Urethra

4

What are some functions of the urinary system?

Excretes toxins, metabolic wastes drugs, compounds that are in excess from the blood

Regulates the total volume of water within the body

Regulates the concentration of ions with in the blood (sodium and potassium)

Hormonal secretion

Assist in acid-base balance

5

How many kidneys are in the body and what do they do?

Two

Filter is the incoming blood

Removes waste products

6

What are the smallest functional unit of the kidneys where the filter in a blood occurs?

Nephrons

7

Where does the urine/waste products go after they are drained from the kidney?

To the bladder

8

After the urine is collected in the bladder it is expelled from the body through the what?

What is the process called?

Urethra

Called micturition

9

How are male and female urethras different?

They are different lengths

10

These are behind the abdominal cavity and located in the upper lumbar region

Kidneys

T-12-L3 vertebrae region

11

Why are the kidneys slightly lower ?

They are lower due to the liver

12

That adrenal gland's are positioned on what area of the kidney?

Superior portion

13

Where is the renal hilum located on the kidney and what organs does it consist of?

Medial side

This is where the nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, ureters enter and exit

14

If a kidney was dissected how many regions would be present?

What are they?

Three regions

– Cortex
-medulla
– Pelvis

15

This is the superficial region a.k.a. outer region of the kidney

Renal cortex

16

This is the inner region of the kidney that has a pyramid shape

Renal medulla

17

This is the region of the kidney that the values and blood vessels are found

Continues as the ureter To the Bladder

Renal pelvis

18

These are extensions from the outer layer of the kidney? aka renal cortex they then divide the interior region into cone shaped sections

Renal columns

19

What are the cone shaped sections called in the kidney?

Transports urine away from the cortex

Renal pyramids

20

The tip of the pyramid is called what that faces the hilum?

Renal papilla

21

The renal papilla extends into a cup called what??

Collects urine leaving the papilla

Minor calyx

22

When two or three minor calyx join together it is called a what?

Major calyx

23

The major calyx coverage forms the what?

Renal pelvis

24

The renal pelvis continues to the what? Which is a tubelike structure that channels urine to the urinary bladder

Ureter

25

This branches off to the domino aorta brings blood to the kidney

Renal artery

26

As the renal artery enters the kidney it divides branching into smaller and smaller arteries. The arteries pass through the renal columns which are the pyramid like structures and extends into what?

The renal cortex a.k.a. the outer region of the kidney

27

Blood eventually leave the kidney through the what?

It then empties into the what?

Renal vein

Inferior Vena cava

28

These are structural and functional units of the kidney

Nephrons

29

The kidney contains over how many nephrons?

Over 1 million

30

What do the nephrons do?

Nephrons filter the blood and produce urine

31

What will damage to the nephrons do?

It will cause kidney dysfunction

32

Nephrons are composed of what to parts?

Renal corpuscle

Renal tubule and collecting duct

33

This is a group of nerve endings or capillaries in the renal Corpuscle which is surrounded by Bowmans capsule

Glomerulus

34

What is the purpose of glomerulus?

Allows plasma to pass from the blood vessel to the surrounding capsule

35

What cannot pass out of the glomerulus ?

Rbc proteins and larger structures

36

What does the Bowmans capsule do?

It collects the fluid that escapes from the Glomerulus

37

This is the portion that is continuous with the Bowmans capsule

Renal tubule portion

38

What are the three sections that transition into the collecting duct

Pct
Nephron loop
DCT
Collecting duct

39

The fluid that was filtered out of the glomerulus collected in the Bowmans capsule is directed into the renal tubule portion

This fluid contains water, ions, nutrients, Waze and chemical some of which the body wants to keep and some it wants to get rid of

What will re-absorbency nutrients molecules and water back into the bloodstream?

Where will the waste products and other molecules that are waste go?

Renal tubule

It will be excreted out of the urine

40

What are the three processes of your information?

Glomerular filteration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion

41

What substances does filtrate contain?

All of the substances found in the plasma except for proteins

42

What substances does urine contain?

All of the unwanted substances for secretion

43

This is the passive process where the Hydrostatistic pressure forces the blood plasma out of the glomerulus

This allows for proper filter ration – larger cells in molecules cannot pass through such as RBCs and proteins

Glomerular filtration

44

What happens of RBCs and proteins are found in the urine?

It could mean there is damage to the glomerulus /nephron

45

How many liters of filtrate urine is produced per day?

180 L

46

This will reabsorb about 99% of the filtrate produced

Tubular reabsorption

47

Where does tubular reabsorption occur?

It occurs within a renal tubule portion of the nephron

48

The PCT reabsorbs what substances?

Water, sodium ions, all nutrients, and other materials

49

What will the nephron loop reabsorb?

It will reabsorb water and ions

50

What does the DCT reabsorb?

It reabsorbs calcium ions and sodium and chloride ions

51

What is collecting duct (reabsorbs water and concentrates the urine ) reabsorption influenced by?

Hormonal influence and the body's hydration levels

52

This is the reverse of the tubular reabsorption

It is the process of moving substances from the blood into the filtrate

It's a woman needs drugs and substances attached to proteins

Tubular secretion

53

Where does tubular secretion occur?

It occurs along the renal tubule and collecting duct

54

These are the filter ration units of the kidney that lie in the outer kidney region

Nephron

55

These help allow for the production of filtrate, For substances to be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream and tubular secretion which allows for larger items to be passed into the renal tubule's for excretion with in the urine

The three processes to urine formation

56

These are muscular tubes that transport the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

Ureters

57

How many inches is the ureter in length?

9.8 inches

58

What helps propel urine from the renal pelvis towards the bladder?

Peristaltic waves

59

This is a muscular sac on the bottom of the pelvic floor second store urine temporarily

Where is it located?

Urinary bladder


Behind the pubic symphysis

60

The bladder has how many layers?

Which one is the thickest?

Three layers

The muscular layer is the thickest aka detrusor muscle

61

This is the wall of the bladder which consists of three layers of smooth muscle?

Detrustor muscle

62

This is the part of the bladder that expands when it is full which is made of mucus epithelium tissues

rugae

63

Bladder is considered full when it contains how much urine?

500 mL

64

What is the maximum capacity of a bladder?

800 mL

65

This is the triangular shapes know the area on the floor of the bladder that infection commonly attack the area of this part of the bladder

Trigone

66

This is the part of the ladder that contracts involuntary to keep urine in the bladder

Internal urethral sphincter

67

This is where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor, it consist of skeletal muscle and is under voluntary control of urine

External urinary sphincter

68

This is the small tube that brings urine away from the bladder and out of the body

Urethra

69

The opening of the urethra leading outside of the body is called what?

External urinary meatus

70

A thin wall muscular tube that drains urine from the bladder

Urethra

71

How many inches is the female urethra compared to the male urethra?

1.2 inches -female
7.9 inches -male

72

This is the act of emptying the bladder aka-voiding

Micturition

73

This is when The bladder is on able to expel it's contained urine

Urinary retention

74

What is the result of urinary retention?

The insertion of a catheter